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3.9       Synopsis

CHAPTER – I I I : Animal Science

Compednium – Animal Health

PART- I I

Cattle :  Health 

ACH -1

This study was aimed to know the extent of infertility problem and to isolate, identify, the specific and non specific agents causing infertility in cross bred and exotic cattle in Nepal. The treatment responses  of antiseptic and antibiotics in repeat breeders and aborted cases have also been evaluated. One hundred and eighteen serum samples collected from the repeat breeder and aborted cows were subjected for antibody detection of Brucella abortus, Leptospira hardjo, Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis/Pustular Vulvo vaginitis virus and Chlamydia  pscittaci. 0.8% samples were positive for the presence of antibody of brucellosis, 9.3% for leptospirosis and 50.8% for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/Infectious pustular vulvovaginitis  and no any sample positive for chlamydiosis. The cervical and uterine samples tested for Trichomonads microscopically, none of the sample was found  positive.  Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp, Staphylococcus aureus were major  bacterial species isolated from the cows having cervicitis and endometritis. The treatment response of the cows with pathological condition of endometritis, and/or cervicitis was found promising.   Out of 28 cases treated, 19 (67.8%) cows were found to be pregnant at follow up after 5 months. Therefore, the treatment therapy applied in this study can be a promising therapy for the treatment of cases with infectious form of infertility particularly infertility  due to microbial origin.

Reference:        Jha, V. C. (2002). Proceedings of the 5th National workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research  in Nepal. NARC/NASRI,Lalitpur: 137-141.

ACH – 2

The results of regular teat dipping poat milking for a period of 9-10 months in 118 cattle of Kundhar, Hyangja and Batulechaur of Kaski district and Lumle farm showed that with regular use of teat dips in Povidone iodine, the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis was reduced by 70% from the initial infection level. Similarly, there was a significant reduction on the incidence of clinical mastitis in the animals whwn teat dipping was practiced, indicating the useful role of teat dips in controlling mastitis of dairy animals. These findings needs to be disseminated in the commercial dairy pockets for effective control of clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in dairy animals.

Reference:        Joshi, B.R. (2002). Proceedings of the  5th National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/ NASRI, Lalitpur: 142-146.

ACH - 3

Fascioliasis is the most important parasitic disease of cattle and buffaloes causing heavy economic losses in Nepal. More than 50% prevalence of the disease has been reported in cattle and buffaloes in different parts of the country. Under Nepalese condition, the major risk period of the disease is between September to February. A study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a strategic drenching against fascioliasis in cattle in controlling the disease in the western hills of Nepal. Thirty Fasciola infected cows in each of the four village (two in mid and two in low hills) were randomly divided in to two groups. Animals in the treatment group were drenched with 2.5% Albendazole suspension at 12 mg per kg body weight (110-130 ml per cow) once in November and second time in February, and the animals in the other group were left untreated. Faecal samples were collected at monthly intervals, and were examined by standard sedimentation method for the presence of Fasciola eggs. The experimental animals were also scored for their body condition before and three weeks after each drenching. The strategic drenching reduced the overall infection in treated animals. In the mid hills, the strategic drenching was very effective in controlling the infection in cattle for the whole year. However, in the low hills, it was not equally effective in controlling the infection as in the mid hills. The likely reason for this could be the difference in the feeding management influencing the severity and frequency of the infection in the two altitudes. The effect of strategic drenching on the body condition of cattle was significant only in the low hills for February drenching. Farmers response to the strategic drenching, in general, were good with some improvement in body condition and milk production.

Reference:        Shrestha, H.K and Joshi, H.D. (1997).Bulletin of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Nepal: 25. 

ACH – 4

Brucellosis is endemic in Nepal and is a disease of significant economic and public health importance in the dairy production systems of the country. The epidemiology and prevalence of burcellosis in the national herd has not been evaluated in the country and the government has not yet formulated the national strategy for brucellosis control. In this present study the prevalence of brucellosis in yak (Naks), Chaurries and hilly cattle of Langtang valley has been studied. A total of 74 animals (18 in Chandanbari and 56 in Kyanjing gumpa) were sampled, of which 13 were either moderately or strongly positive for burcellosis, giving an overall prevalence of 17.6% of this disease in the tested population.

Reference:        Lefkowitz,N.A., D.D. Joshi, D. Herd, B.K. Chhetri, M. Sharma (2003).  Nepalese Veterinary journal: 27.

ACH - 5

This study was aimed to evaluate the extent of infertility problem and to isolate, identify the specific and nonspecific agents causing infertility in crossbred and exotic cattle in Nepal. The treatment responses of antiseptic and antibiotics in repeat breeders and aborted cases have also been evaluated.  One hundred and eighteen serum samples collected from the repeat breeder and aborted cows were subjected for antibody detection of Brucella abortus, Leptospira hardjo, Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis/Infectous Pustular Vulvovaginitis virus and Chlamydia psittaci which showed that 0.8% samples were positive for the presence of antibody for B. obortus, 9.3% for L. hardjo and 50.8% for Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis/Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis Virus. No sample was positive for C. psittaci. The cervical and uterine samples tested for Trichomonads microscopically, revealed no positive case.  Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp and Staphylococcus aureus were major bacterial species isolated from cows having cervicitis and endometritis. The treatment response of cows with pathological condition of endometritis, and/or cervicitis was found promising. Out of 28 cases treated, 19(67.8%) cows became pregnant. Therefore the treatment therapy applied in this study can be a promising therapy for the treatment of cases with infectious form of infertility of microbial origin.

Reference:        Jha,V .C. (2005). Nepalese Veterinary Journal: 27.

ACH – 6

A study was conducted to verify the strategic drenching with pyrental pamoate and piperazine against ascariasis in cattle calves in the mid hills of Nepal during July 1994 to June 1995. The prevalence rate of Toxocara vitulorum was found to be 43% in cow calves. Pyrental pamoate drenching at 15 days of age was found to be 100% effective whereas piperazine drenching at recommended dose rate was effective in 87% of ascariasis cases in calves. A significant difference in growth rate was observed among the calves of Pyrental pamoate treated group and farmers management group. Strategic drenching of calves with Pyrental pamoate at recommended dose rate of 250 mg at 15 days of age is recommended to check the losses due to ascariasis. 

Reference:        Joshi,H.D., H. K. Shrestha and B. R. Joshi. 1997 LARC Working Paper No. 97/32. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Lumle, Kaski.

ACH – 7

Fascioliasis is the most important parasitic disease of cattle and buffaloes causing heavy economic losses in Nepal. More than 50% prevalence of the disease has been reported in cattle and buffaloes in different parts of the country. Under Nepalese condition, the major risk period of the disease is between September to February. A study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a strategic drenching against facioliasis in cattle in controlling the disease in the western hills of Nepal. Thirty fasciola infected cows in each of the four villages (Pakuwa in Parbat district, and Kundule in Baglung district in the mid hills and Bhenedabari and Sisuwa in Kaski district in the low hills) were randomly divided in to two groups. Animals in the treatment group were drenched with 2.5% Albendazole suspension at 12 mg per kg body weight (110-130 ml per cow) once in November and second time in February and the animals in the other group were left untreated. Faecal samples were collected at monthly intervals, and were examined by standard sedimentation method for the presence of fasciola eggs. The experimental animals were also scored for their body condition before and three weeks after each drenching. The drenching schedule was found to reduce the overall infection rate in treated animals. In the mid hills, the strategic drenching was very effective in controlling the infection in cattle for the whole year. However, in the low hills, it was not equally effective in controlling the infection as in the mid hills. The likely reason for this could be the difference in the feeding management influencing the severity and frequency of the infection in the two altitudes. The effective strategic drenching on the body condition of cattle was significant only in the low hills for February drenching. Farmers' responses to the strategic drenching, in general, were good with some improvement in body condition and milk production. Study on economic benefits by strategic drenching of cattle different agro-ecological zones is the further area of research.

Reference:        Shrestha,H.K,, and H. D. Joshi. 1998. LARC Working Paper No. 98/15. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Lumle, Kaski. 

ACH – 8 

Prevalence of paramphistomiosis in cattle of four Village Development Committees (VDCs) located in Terai and one VDC located in hills was evaluated. The overall prevalence rates were found to be 32.5% in the Terai and 22.2% in the hills. The highest prevalence rate was recorded in Lantang VDC which might be a refection of the wide spread permanent snail habitats due to the year round irrigation facilities in the area.

Reference:         Mahato, S.N., and K. Rai. 1992. Veterinary Review,7(2):63-64

ACH – 9 

Influence of air temperature and precipitation on the incidence of clinical mastitis or environmental mastitis in three dairies was studied for a period of four years (1982-85). Out of 4074 clinical mastitis cases, 2325 (57 percent) were environmental, 320 (7.9 percent cases were contagious, and 1429 (35.1 percent) cases were clean. Monthly clinical mastitis infection rates and monthly environmental mastitis infection rates of Dairy I was not significantly associated (P>0.1) with air temperature or precipitation. These rates of dairy II were significantly associated (P<0.05) with the weather parameters. Monthly clinical mastitis infection rates and monthly environmental mastitis infection rates of Dairy III were significantly associated with the weather parameters but the association was very poor.  

Reference:        Acharya,K.P., 1992 Proceedings of The Fourth National Veterinary Conference of Nepal Veterinary Association, Vol. 21-23 , pp 64-71.

Buffalo : Health 

ABH - 1

A study conducted to determine the prevalence rate, etiological agent, antibiogram pattern and efficacy of some potent antibiotics for the treatment of clinical mastitis in buffaloes showed that majority of the buffaloes at the first lactation and within two month of lactation were affected with clinical mastitis. 47% quarters were positive to California Mastitis Test (CMT). Coliform (30%) was the most frequently isolated organisms followed by Staphylococcus, non coliform gram negative bacilli and Streptococcus spp.   Results indicated that majority of buffaloes were affected with clinical mastitis at summer and monsoon season in comparison to winter season. Antibiogram revealed that majority of isolates were sensitive to Gentamycin, Chloromphenicol, Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Cephotaxime. However most of the isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, and Cloxacillin.  Among the various drugs used in the treatment, Gentamycin, Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Cephotaxime were having good results against the isolates of gram positive and gram negetive bacteria. Efficacy of drugs in the field condition revealed that Gentamycin injection intramammary as well as parental and Enrofloxacin injection only by parental administration are proved to be the most effective in comparison to other antibiotic preparations tested.

Reference:        Dhakal, I.P. (1996). Bulletin of Veterinary Science and Animal husbandry, Nepal, 24,                               71-74

ABH -  2

Of the fifty apparently healthy buffalo examined, 22 percent had sub clinical mastitis, somatic cell count>500,000/ml and culturally positive, and 52 percent had latent mammary infection, somatic cell count<500,000ml and culturally positive. On a quarter basis, sub clinical infection was found in formilk and stripping samples at a rate of 7.5 and 6.5 percent respectively while latent infection was determined in 18.5 and 25.5 percent of the formilk and stripping samples respectively. Among 120 bacterial isolates, Staphylococcus species were most predominant followed by Sterptococcus species. Stripping samples had more somatic cell count in normal and mastitis milk   as compared to foremilk. The viable cell count was similar in both milk fractions. However, it was significantly higher in mastitic milk than normal buffalo milk samples and was positively correlated with somatic cell count and bacterial count. Four types of cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and epithelial cells) were observed in buffalo milk samples. Neutrophils were predominant in both fractious. Lactose content was significantly low in both fractions of mastitic milk samples. Lactose content was negatively correlated with neutrophil, somatic cell count, viable cell count and bacterial counts. However, it was positively correlated with epithelial cell count. Lactose content was also significantly low among California mastitis test positive samples. Overall, the study indicated that the stripping samples detected more clinical cases than foremilk samples.

Reference:        Dhakal, I.P. (2000). Bulletin of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 26

ABH – 3 

Monthly epidemiological reports of Khari disease between June 1996 and December 1998 from Darchula and Baitadi districts were analyzed. During that period, out of 8210 cases reported 29 animals (0.35%) died while other animals recovered. A large number of cases were reported from December to March every year and almost all the sick animals were in lactation. The cases were reported from 700 m to 2000m altitudes and recurrence of the disease in the same animal was quite common.

Reference:         Nirmal,B.K., D.P.S. Thaguna  D. P. Chaudhary (2000). Bulletin of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 26.

ABH - 4

This study was conducted during 1998-99 to evaluate the efficacy of systemic vs. intramammary therapy against clinical mastitis and to analyze the expenditure on treatment, cost for extra labor and determination of milk losses due to Mastitis. In this study, 46% of the buffaloes were found to be affected with clinical mastitis with higher prevalence in first two months of lactations. Highest proportions of animal were affected with Coliform mastitis (65%) followed by \ Staphylococcal and Streptococcal mastitis (26%). Systemic therapy was found better in comparison to intramamary therapy. In present study, highest proportion of losses resulted from decreased milk production (Rs. 4287 or USD 63) per buffalo per lactation. Milk loss was found to be about 11% of the total lactation yield. Nearly 68% of the losses resulted from drop in milk production. Expenditure on medicine accounts for 1.4% of the total cost and nearly 6.5% of the total cost is needed for the Veterinarians fee. Salaries for the extra labor accounted for 12% of the total treatment and management cost. About 13% of the animals suffering from clinical mastitis were culled due to failure of treatment. 

Reference:        Dhakal, I.P. and B.B. Thapa (2003). Nepalese Veterinary Journal, 27.

ABH - 5

Prolapse of vagina is one of the important maternal abnormalities during pregnancy in cattle and buffaloes. A field investigation was carried out on 26 Murrah graded buffaloes to study clinical characteristics of vaginal prolapse in buffaloes in Nepal. Fifty-seven percent of the 26 buffaloes with vaginal prolapse were either heifers or in first lactation. Sixty- five percent of the cases were in seventh month of pregnancy or later. About three quarters of the cases occurred between June and October. Twelve cases, 63% of the 19 animals (excluding 7 heifers) had a history of vaginal prolapse in previous gestations.   Half of the buffaloes were showing prolapse of the vagina even when they were in standing position and showing moderate to vigorous staining. After the conventional treatments twenty three buffaloes retained the replaced vagina and calved normally. One animal aborted although the vagina was retained. Two buffaloes had the most severe degree of vaginal prolapse complicated with edema, injury and cyanosis and they did not respond to the treatment. The two buffaloes had frequently recurrent prolapse and subsequently died. Early detection and prompt treatment may be imperative to control the vaginal prolapse in buffaloes.

Reference:         Sah, S.K. and T. Nakao (2003). Proceedings on 7th national conference of Nepal veterinary association.

ABH – 6

This study was performed to survey the standard haematological values and some serum biochemical parameters in Nepalese buffaloes. Blood samples were obtained from buffaloes raised in IAAS and neighboring villages. Packed cell volume, total and differential white blood cell count, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and serum protein were measured. Differences were found between IAAS and village animals in some parameters. Change with age and differences from Friesian cow were also recorded.

Reference:        Kobayashi,K., D. K. Singh  and I. P. Dhakal (2003). Proceedings on 7th national conference of Nepal Veterinary Association.

ABH- 7

This study was conducted to investigate the normal somatic cell count and to define subclinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes. Data were collected from sixty clinically normal buffaloes stationed at five farms of Chitwan Nepal and Buffalo Research Center,Hissar, India. Somatic cell count was measured using the Newmann -Lampert staining technique. The upper limit of somatic cell count was determined ≥200,000/ml of milk based on the mean ± 2sd of a total somatic cell count. Somatic cell count of right front and right hind quarters were significantly higher than left front and left hind quarters. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed on the basis of samples with somatic cell counts  ≥200,000/ml and positive bacterial cultures. Subclinical mastitis was found in 21.7% buffaloes and 8% of the quarter foremilk samples. Neutrophil count were significantly higher in subclinical mastitis milk.

Reference:        Dhakal, Ishwari P. (2003). Proceedings on 7th national conference of Nepal Veterinary Association.

ABH - 8  

Three buffalo calves identified to be infected with Fasciola spp. by faecal examination were drenched with triclabendazole (Fasinex) 10% suspension, at a the dose rate of 12 mg/kg body weight, and were stall fed on tree fodder for the whole experimental period. The animals did not recover and were again re drenched twice at an interval of 35 and 21 days at the same dose rate.  Even after the third drenching, the animals were still found to be suffering from Fascioliasis. On slaughter, adult flukes were recovered from their livers. The reasons for the inefficacy of of triclabendazole in buffaloes are not understood. Until further research is carried out it is suggested that the drug should not be recommended for the treatment of Fasciolosis in buffaloes.  

Reference:        Joshi, B.R. (1990-92).  Bulletin of Veterinary Science & Animal husbandry, Nepal. 19-20

ABH –9

A chronic disease of unknown etiology in buffalo, locally known as Khari disease with high morbidity and mortality was reported from Darchula district in Jan. 1988. A similar Condition was also reported from Baitadi in April 1989. A survey of incidence of Khari disease in buffalo in Baitadi & Karchula district was conducted.  The data revealed 34.7% morbidity and 26.2% mortality rate due to Khari disease among the buffalo in the survey areas. High incidence of Khari disease in the winter months especially during the critical feed shortage was confirmed. The morbidity and mortality rate of Khari disease in stall-fed buffalo was found 36.5% and 28.5% respectively while these were only 28.2% and 17.9% in grazing buffaloes.  Out of 28 skin scraping microscopically examined 27 (96.4%) samples demonstrated Psoroptic mites. These mites morphologically resembled Psoroptes natalenses is but further validation is needed.  5 samples of necrosed material were obtained from the hoof and inoculated in blood agar and Sabourauds media yield no growth. Clinical examination of 57 buffaloes in various locality of Baitadi district concluded Psoroptic mange was not the only cause & some soil borne bacterial infection was also suspected.  25 clinically affected buffaloes treated with lvomec@200 mcg lvermectin per kg. body weight by subcutaneous route responded well and recommended for the treatment of Khari disease.

Reference:        Ratala, D.R., P. Manandhar  & G.R. Pant  (1990-92). Bulletin of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Nepal. 19-20.  

ABH – 10

A total of 95 indigenous buffaloes were selected in the year 1993 from three villages in three districts of the western hills known to be fasciola endemic region. At least 30 animals positive for fasciola eggs in faeces were selected randomly from each site comprising at least 15 animals each in treatment and control groups. Animals in the treatment group were drenched with Albendozole 2.5% w/v in the month of February, and faecal samples from all the animals both in the control and treatment groups were examined at an interval of 30 days by standard sedimentation method. Body condition of individual animal was scored before and after drenching. The prevalence of fascioliasis after the February drenching was reduced to as low as 4%. This difference was highly significant P=0.000). The prevalence of fascioliasis remained low in treated animals for more than six months. The body condition score of animals was significantly different between the groups one and a half month (P=0.000) and eight months (P=0.006) post drenching, whereas the condition scores of animals across the sites were significantly different only eight months post drenching (P=0.000) but not one and a half months post drenching (P=0.082). February drenching would help for the improvement in the production level in buffaloes, as it was able keep animals free of infestation for an extended period and also coincides with the feed scarcity period and late lactation stage of buffaloes. However, a second drenching at the end of October or November would be necessary for effective control of fascioliasis in the buffalo population managed in the farmers’ condition. However, some modification and further investigation is required in the proposed control strategy for some specific locations of the mid- hills. 

Reference:         Gautam,D.C., S. C. Ghimire, R. K. Kadariya and D. P. Rasali. 1997. LARC Seminar Paper No. 97/19. Lumle Agricultura lResearch Centre (LARC),Lumle, Kaski.

ABH – 11 

This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis among the buffalo population of Chitwan Valley, Nepal at drying off (DO) and post calving (PC) stage. A total of 170 buffaloes and 680 quarters were examined for sub-clinical mastitis at DO in 134 buffaloes and 544 quarters were followed up and studied at PC stage. AT DO, the frequency of individuals that showed CMT positive scores was 19.56% in comparison to the PC stage 9.18%. In sub-clinical mastitis milk somatic cell counts (SCC) were significantly higher (P<0.01) at DO than at the PC stage. At DO period 50.44% quarters were observed to be culturally positive whereas at the PC stage 47.62% quarters were culturally positive. Staphylococci were found to be the most prevalent organisms accounting for 22.50% at DO and 17.64% of the total isolations at PC stage. It is followed by Streptococci at DO and non-Coliform Gram negative bacilli at PC stage. Coliform bacteria were isolated at higher percentage at PC stage (10.47%) than at DO (6.02%). Subclinical mastistis quarters were diagnosed on the basis of either SCC positive and culturally positive or CMT score greater or equal to one and culturally positive. On an animal basis 27.35 % of the animals suffered from subclinical mastitis at DO and 16.16% at PC stage. On a quarter basis 14.85% of quarters of DO and 10.47% at the PC stage were having SCC 300,000 cells/ml. and culturally positive whereas 12.5% at DO and 5.69% at the PC stage were having CMT score 1 and above and culturally positive. 

Reference:         Dhakal,I.P.1994, Veterinary review, 9(2) and 10(1):18-22.  

ABH – 12 

A total of 125 indigenous buffaloes were selected from four sites in three districts of the western hills of Nepal known to be fasciola endemic region during 1993. About 30 animals positive for fascioliasis was selected form each site randomly comprising 15 in treatment group and 15 in control group. Animal in the treatment group were drenched with Albendazole 2.5% w/v in the month of February and faecal samples form all the animals both in control and treatment group were examined at the interval of 309 days by standard sedimentation method. Body conditions of the individual animals were measured before and after drenching. The prevalence of fascioliasis after the February drenching was reduced to as low as 13% in the treatment group when compared with control group where the prevalence rate was 49% and this difference was highly significant (P=0.003). February drenching reduced the fasciola prevalence rate considerably for about five months. The body condition of the animals was significantly different between the groups (P=0.000), where as the body condition of animals between the sites were not significantly different (P=0.082). October drenching showed significant differences both in prevalence rate (P=0.006) as well as body condition of individual animal (p=0.006). February drenching would help for the improvement in the production level in buffaloes, as it was able to keep animals free of infestation for an extended period and also coincides with the feed scarcity period and late lactation stage of buffaloes. However, a second drenching at the end of October or November would be necessary for effective control of fascioliasis in the buffalo population managed in the farmer's condition. But to control fascioliasis from highly endemic areas perhaps more than two drenching schedule/ animal/year might be useful. 

Reference:        Gautam, D.C., R. K. Kadariya and D. P. Rasali. 1997. LARC Seminar Paper No. 97/40. Lumle Agricultural Research,Centre, Lumle Kaski.

ABH – 13 

A feeding trial of UMB (urea molasses block), Tree fodder @ 3% live weight), concentrate (1@ live weight) and a control (local feeding practice) fitted in a completely randomised experimental design was conducted for 1 year in 5 equal groups of 40 growing local buffalo calves experimentally infected with metacercariae. One group was maintained on the diet similar to the control group, was treated with Fasinex (@ 24 mg/kg live weight) at 20 WPI (weeks post infection). The animals were routinely monitored for any changes in the hemato-biochemical values including the activities of the serum enzymes GGT (-glutamyl transpeptidase) GLDH (Glutamate dehydrogenase), faecal fasciola egg counts and  the live weight gains. At 37 WPI, the animals were slaughtered and the carcasses were evaluated. The benefits of the feed supplements were compared with the anthelmentics and the cost-effective method of managing fasciolosis locally has been identified.

Reference:        Subba,D.B., S. N. Mahato, L. J. S. Harrison and R. A. Pearson. 2000. Proceedings of the Workshop on Strategies for feed management in area endemic for fasciolosis, 5th March 2000, Kathmandu. pp. 32-41

Cattle/Buffalo :  Health 

ACBH -1

This paper reports the findings on teat dipping approach for the control of mastitis in dairy cows. The program was implemented for nine months on farmers animals at Kundhar village of Kaski district, Nepal. The result of the study shows that regular teat dipping in Povidone Iodine reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis by 70% from the initial infection rate. Similarly, there was a significant reduction on the incidence of clinical mastitis recorded during the teat dipping year as compared to the previous year. These findings suggest the useful role of teat dips in controlling mastitis of dairy animals.

Reference:        Joshi, B. R. (2001). Lumle Agriculture Seminar Paper  no 2001/5, Lumle. 

ACBH – 2

Milk samples from 85 apparently healthy cows and 363 apparently healthy buffaloes were tested with sodium laurile sulphate (SLS) test and whiteside test in the command area of Lumle Agricultural Research Centre. The test positive milk samples were also subjected to leucocyte count and bacteriological examination. The result of investigation showed that the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) in cows and buffaloes were 30.6% and 32.2% respectively. Higher prevalence of SCM was recorded in cows and buffaloes (46% and 39.6% respectively) in the mid hill area than the low and high hills. Similarly, stall fed animals were found to be more affected then the free grazing. Likewise the prevalence of SCM in cows and buffaloes was in increasing trend in the successive lactations. The prevalence of SCM was found significantly higher in cows and buffaloes without having a suckling calf than those with calves. Infection of one teat was found to be common in both species. Among the bacteriologically positive samples, single bacterial species was found in 79.6% of samples, while mixed bacterial growth was recorded in 20.3% samples. Among the isolated bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus was found in highest proportion followed by  mixed infection of Streptococcus spp. with other organisms. Among the SCM affected animals, 15% cows and 3.4% buffaloes developed clinical mastitis in their subsequent lactation.

Reference:        Joshi,H.D. and B. R. Joshi (1997). Veterinary Review, 12(1), 1-6.

ACBH – 3 

Epidemiological investigation on clinical mastitis (CM) in cows and buffaloes was conducted during 1994/95 in the western hills of Nepal to identify microorganisms involved and to ascertain the factors involved as well as to assess the efficacy of antibiotics recommended. A total of 74 animals (18 cows and 56 buffaloes) suffering from mastitis were investigated. CM was found in 127 teats of the animals. Milk samples from infected teats were subjected to bacteriological examination and antibiotic sensitivity test. Bacteriological examination revealed that 112 (88.2%) teat milk sample had microbial growth, of which 76 (68.0%) had single microbial infections and 32.0 % had mix infections. Coliforms (particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae  and Escherichia coli)  were recorded in 25% followed by Streptococcus spp (19.6%) and Staphylococcus spp. (9.8%).  In the antibiotic sensitivity , Gentamycin  was  found to be 79.4% effective followed by Oxytetracycline  61.8%, Cotrimoxazole 48.5% and Ampicillin only 22.5% and Streptomycin, Cloxacillin and Penicillin were found to be least effective. Higher incidence of CM was found in the first lactation of animals (64.4%) particularly during monsoon (July-Sept) season  (71.0%) and during the first week of first calving (78.1%), in animals without suckling calf (69.0%) and raised under stall-fed management system (86.3%). 

Reference:        Joshi,H.D., B. R. Joshi and H.K. Shrestha (1998). Veterinary Review, 13, 12-15.

ACBH -4

A study to investigate the causative agents of infertility in cattle and buffaloes in Nepal by collecting and analyzing the serum samples from animals showing reproductive problems from different districts showed antibodies against Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR),  Neospora and Leptospora hardjo. In addition, biochemical tests revealed deficiencies of copper, selenium, manganese and low blood urea.

Reference:        Dyson, D, Sharma, B. pant, G.R. (2000). Veterinary Review, 15, 7-10

ACBH - 5

Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) has been regarded as one of the important diseases of bovines in Nepal causing considerable economic loss. Outbreak of this disease has been recorded in all seasons in the western hills of Nepal with relatively higher frequencies during the summer season. Mortality in the affected cases was recorded to be about 20 Percent. Pasturella multocida of serotype B:2 was isolated from all investigated outbreaks. The protective immunity of locally produced alum precipitated vaccine was found to be for three months, thus grazing animals will need to be vaccinated at three monthly intervals. The strategic period for vaccination would be at the beginning of the summer and autumn seasons and oil adjuvant  vaccine would be better than alum precipitated vaccine for preventive vaccination due to its longer immunity.

Reference:        Joshi,B.R. and H.D. Joshi (2003). Nepalese Veterinary Journal, 27. 

ACBH – 6 

Redwater in cattle has been recognized as a problem in the hills of Eastern Nepal for many years. The local name is 'Lomute'. It has previously been thought to be due to Babesia bigemina or B. bovis. Initial investigation of the epidemiology of the condition made babesiosis appear to be unlikely. There was no acute phase and cattle were commonly affected for several years before becoming progressively thinner and dying. Affected cattle were mostly in the older age group. Accordingly, blood and urine samples were collected from cattle affected with redwater and from unaffected cattle. The main alternative disease condition to babesiosis, which causes redwater in cattle is Enzootic Bovine Haematuria (EBH), which is a chronic condition of insidious onset. Animals exhibit an intermittent, mild clinical haematuria or persistent sub clinical haematuria. There is gradual weight loss over months or years and animals become anaemic.

Reference:         Hopkins, N.C.G.  and S.N. Mahato (1985). Bulletin of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 13.

ACBH – 7 

Microorganisms isolated from the clinical and sub-clinical cases of bovine mastitis from the mid hills of western Nepal during 1996/97, were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity by rotary dise diffusion technique. The in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the microorganisms showed that Chloramphenicol, Gentamysin Nemycin and Cephalexin were the most effective antibiotics against most of the isolated microorganisms. While Penicillin-G and Cloxacillin were found highly effective against Gram positive microorganisms, The moderately effective were Tetracycline, Cotramixazole, Streptomycin and Oxytetracycline. These findings will be helpful for the clinicians to decide o the selection of antibiotics for the treatment of bovine mastitis .

Reference:        Joshi, H.D., B. R. Joshi and H.K. Shrestha. 1999. In: S. P. Neopane and R. C. Khanal (eds.), Proceedings of the Third National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries research in Nepal, June 26-28, 1999, ARS, Lumle. pp 142-147

ACBH – 8   

A study was carried out through a questionnaires household survey and a series of infertility camps to investigate the situation of infertility, their types and extent in cows and buffaloes in the western hills of Nepal. The sampling framework of household survey comprised of 52 local and 50 crossbred cows, 45 local and 39 crossbred buffaloes from 4 sample villages of high hills; 38 local and 37 crossbred cows, 39 local and 39 crossbred buffaloes from 6 sample villages of mid hills; and 47 local and 40 crossbred cows, 53 local and 49 crossbred buffaloes from 5 sample villages of low hills. The survey results showed that the overall occurrence of the infertility problems in them cows 17%, of which repeat breeding (9.5%) and anoestrus (4.2%) were the major ones.  The frequency of overall infertility problems was significantly higher (P<0.05) occurrence of anoestrus (9.2%) than those in the high  (2.0%) and mid hills (1.3%). The household survey results also showed that the overall occurrence of infertility problems in buffaloes was 20.1%, of which the repeat breeders (9.8%), anoestrus (9.5%) and the silent heater (7.2%) were the major ones. The frequencies of the overall infertility and repeat breeding were significantly different (P<0.05) across the factors altitude and management system, whilst the silent heat problem was significant (P<0.05) across the parity. The buffaloes in the low hills had the highest frequency of the overall infertility (26.5%) and repeat breeding (15.7%) as compared to those in the mid-hills (20.4 and 7.5%, respectively) and those in the high-hills (10.1 and 4.3%, respectively) Stall fed buffaloes also had higher frequency of the overall infertility problem (23.7%) and repeat breeding (12.9%) than in the semi-stall fed buffaloes (1.7 and 2.7%, respectively). The repeat breeding was highest in the 4th party among parities whilst the silent heat cases were higher in the first two parities as compared to the subsequent ones. The survey results also indicated that the overall occurrences of abortion and dystocia were 5.7 and 2.7% respectively in cows, and 4.9 and 3.8% respectively in buffaloes. The altitude was significant (P<0.01) for the frequency of abortion in cows with the highest occurrence in the high hills (11.8%), whilst the management system was significant (P<0.05) for the frequency of abortion in cows also tended to be higher in the third or higher parity. For the adoption of infertility treatment in the western hills, only the crossbred cows or buffaloes were given one or more infertility treatment, although it was indifferent across other factors altitude, management and parity. The investigation of laboratory samples collected from the cows and buffaloes in a series of infertility camps organized in a number of village sites of the western hills yielded some preliminary findings. The results indicated that none of the haematological means values were significantly different between local and crossbred cows and buffaloes or across the types of infertility problem diagnosed. The serum inorganic phosphorus level was higher (P<0.05) in the crossbred than in the local cows and buffaloes, but it was not significantly different across the infertility problem diagnosed. However, the total phosphorus level was significantly higher in the Murrah crossbreeds than in the local buffaloes (P<0.01), and was 8.87±0.46 g% in uterine infectious, 7.09 ± 0.61 % in persistent corups luteum in buffaloes, which were both significantly different (P<0.05). Bacteriological investigations revealed that a total of 129 isolates were identified. Of them Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Nocardia spp., Listeris spp., and Yeast (Candida albicans) were identified in 3.8, 4.6, 3.1, 0.8, and 5.4% of the samples, respectively. Serological investigations in 63 crossbred and 17 local cows using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) revealed 8.7% cows (2 local and 5 crossbred cows) positive with Brucella abortus antigen.

Reference:        Rasali, D.P., H. D. Joshi, H. K. Shrestha and D. C. Gautam. 1998. Lumle Working Paper No 98/40. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Lumle, Kaski.

ACBH – 9  

Records of 91, 562 clinical cases (75412 cattle and 16150 buffaloes) attended over a period of five years at the veterinary hospitals of four Koshi Hill districts were analyzed. The major clinical conditions encountered were parasitic diseases, infectious diseases (bacterial and viral) and general debility. Digestive disorders and conditions caused by trauma and minor surgical affections were also of significance. It was concluded that the most pressing constraint for improving cattle and buffalo productivity in the Koshi hills is parasitic diseases. The control measures need to be focused against helminth parasites and infectious diseases are discussed. 

Reference:        Thakuri,K.C., S. N. Mahato and R. P. Thakur. 1992. Veterinary Review, 7(2):41-46.

ACBH – 10 

Investigation on clinical mastitis (CM) in cows and buffaloes was conducted during 1994/95 in the western hills of Nepal to identify microorganisms involved and to assess to efficacy of antibiotics recommended. A total of 74 animals (18 cows and 56 buffaloes) suffering form mastitis were reported by the farmers. CM was found in 127 teats of the animals. Milk samples from infected teats were subjected to bacteriological examination and antibiotic sensitibity test. Bacteriological examination revealed that 112(88.2%) teat milk sample had microbial growth, of which 76 (68.0%) had single microbial infections and 32.0% had mix infection. Coliforms (25.0%), particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli) followed by streptococcus spp organisms. In the antibiotic sensitivity Gentamycin was found to be more (79.4%) effective than Oxytetracycline (61.8%), Cotrimoxazole (48.5%) and Ampicillin (22.5%). Whereas Streptomycin, Cloxacillin and Penicillin were found to be least effective. Among in-vitro effective antibiotics in-vivo effectiveness of Gentamycin was found to be 94% followed by Tilox (87%), Oxytetracycline (86%), Floclox-L 80%, Pendistrin-SH 75%, combination of Oxytetracycline and Gentamycin 60% and Biotrim (50%). Intra-mammary administration of Wokadine alone at the rate of 15ml of 1% solution per teat once daily for 4 days was found to be effective for the treatment of mastitis caused by yeast in 3 animals. Higher incidence of CM was found in the first lactation of animals (64.4%) particularly during monsoon (July-Sept) season (71.0%). Significantly higher (P<0.001) incidence of CM was found, during the first week first calving (78.1%), animal without having a suckling calf 69.0%), animal raised under stall-fed management system (86.3%) than the second week and above post calving, animals with suckling calf (31.0%) and animal raised under semi-stall and extensive management systems (11% and 3%) respectively. In an average 1.482 lt milk loss per day per animal was found during the infection period and 755 ml of milk yield recovery (in an average) was found one week after the treatment. 

Reference:        Joshi, H.D., H. K. Shrestha and B.R. Joshi. 1997. LARC Working Paper No 97/11. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Lumle, Kaski

ACBH – 11  

The prevalence of fasciolosis in cattle and buffalo was studied in the lower hills 300 to 900m) in Dhankuta district. The prevalence rates ranged from 15.4 to 31.7% in cattle and20.0 to 87.5% in buffaloes depending on the age groups of the animals and ecological conditions of the area; the higher prevalence rates were recorded in older animals and in areas which were ecologically suitable for snail habitats. The efficacy of triclabendazole against natural infections with Fasciola gigantica was evaluated in a field study using 84 buffaloes and 54 cattle. The efficacy was measured on the basis of reduction in eggs per gram of faeces. The findings of the study showed 38 and 100% efficacy of the drug against fasciolosis in buffaloes and cattle respectively at the dose rate of 12-mg/kg body weight. The dose rate of 24 mg/kg was found to be 100% effective in buffaloes. In all dose rates no evidence of drug associated toxicity or side effects were noticed clinically.

Reference:        Shrestha, E.K., R. P. Thakur, I.P. Dhakal and S. N. Mahato. 1992. Veterinary Review, 7(2):47-49

ACBH – 12

Dairy based farming system survey on health management was conducted in Basantapur and Mohanpur Saptari. Farmers identified FMD, parasitic infection, HS and BQ to be the most important diseases followed by mastitis, anthrax, reproductive disorders and haemoprotozoan infection. Calf mortality in Saptari was found to be 14.1% in cattle and buffaloes for which worms, calf scour and pneumonia are the major causes. Among reproductive disorders, repeat breeding is the most important ailment. Farmers ignorance to season and frequency of vaccination and drenching of their animals, non availability of some important drugs and vaccines and misuse of hormones and higher antibiotics are some of the problems with present veterinary practices. Some of the potential areas of applied research on treatment, prevention and control of major diseases are suggested.

Reference:        Paudel, K.P., K.P. Acharya, 1996.  Proceedings of the First National workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research  in Nepal. NARC /  NASRI Lalitpur:162-175.  

ACBH – 13 

A study conducted in western mid hills of Nepal on clinical bovine mastitis showed that single organism was involved in 68% of cases while mixed infection was recorded in 32% of the cases. Coliform infection (25%) followed by Streptococcus (20%) and Staphylococcus (10%) were the most commonly isolated organisms. Gentamycine was found to be most effective followed by Oxytertecycline, clotrimoxazole and Ampicillin. Higher incidence of mastitis was found in first lactation (64%) particularly during monsoon season (71%). A significantly higher incidence of CM was found during the first week after calving in animals without having the suckling calf and animal raised under stall feeding condition.

Reference:        Joshi,H.D., B.R. Joshi and H.K. Shrestha, 1997. Proceedings of the IInd National workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research  in Nepal. NARC /  NASRI Lalitpur : 85-92.

Sheep : Health 

ASH – 1

The genetic resistance of three native Nepalese sheep breeds namely Kage, Baruwal and Lampuchhre was studied against Haemonchus contortus infection by primary and challenge infection of H.contortus larvae. The parasitological and haematological responses of these breeds against H.contortus infection of these breeds indicated the relative superiority of Kage animals than the Baruwal or Lampuchhre breeds against H.contortus infection. The superior resistance of kage breed was expressed by lower worm establishment, lower faecal egg count and worm recovery and higher eosinophil responses than the Baruwal and Lampuchhre breeds.

Reference:          Joshi, B. R. (2000). Veterinary Review, 15, 27-35.

ASH - 2 

Four sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica, four with F. hepatica and four uninfected controls were monitored through clinical, parasitological, haematological, biochemical and pathological observations for 21 weeks. Two sheep, harbouring 80 and 181 F. gigantica died due to sub acute fasciolosis at 14 and 15 weeks after infection respectively. While clinical chronic fasciolosis developed in one sheep which had a burden of 83 F. gigantica. On the other hand F. hepatica infected sheep, even those with burdens of 203 flukes survived until the end of the experiment. Although, the numbers of the sheep infected with each Fasciola spp. were not large enough to draw a firm conclusion, there was an indication that live weight gain in infected sheep was more severely depressed by F. gigantica than F. hepatica. From the results of this pilot experiment there was clear evidence that F. gigantica is more pathogenic than F. hepatica in sheep.

Reference:        Mahato,S.N.,  J.A. Hammond and L.J.S. Harrison (2000). Bulletin of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 26  

ASH – 3 

Lamb mortality is major constraint of sheep farming in Nepal and causes economical losses to the sheep industry. This mortality is high in the migratory flocks and various factors are responsible. A lot of lambs is lost due to faulty management, goes missing in the forest or is taken by predators. These losses are an added burden to the sheep farmers. A comparative study was made between Polworth Cross and Baruwal lambs in Ghandruk area, Kaski District. The result showed that 23.5% died and 10.9% were lost from the crossbreed population. While 17.7 died due to various diseases, and 18.2% were lost in the Baruwal breed. Some reasons for these differences are suggested and discussed. 

Reference:         Karki, N.P.S. and T. S. Dhaubhadel. 1991. Proceedings of the First National Animal Science Convention, January 14-15, 1991, Lalitpur, Nepal. pp.101-103

 Goat : Health

AGH – 1

Sinhal goats are raised with Baruwal sheep as mixed flocks under migratory management in the high altitude villages and Khari goats are reared at the lower altitude villages of Nepal as separate flocks under the sedentary management. A study on the epidemiology  and clinical significance of gastrointestinal nematode in goats raised in both managements showed that mean worm burden, faecal egg counts and worm species composition were different between the systems. Migratory Sinhal goats had significantly higher worm burdens then the sedentary goats during all seasons, but this difference was not reflected in the faecal egg counts of the animals, which was significantly higher in the sedentary Khari goats than in the Sinhal goats. In both systems, infection was at sub-clinical level, however, the weight gain response  of worm controlled goat kids was significantly greater  then the untreated kids managed together in both managements. The daily body weight gain of worm controlled Khari kids was 51 gm as compared to 23 gm in untreated kids, while in the Sinhal kids, the mean daily weight gain of worm controlled kids was 26 gm as compared to 14 gm in untreated kids. These findings are discussed and the control strategy suggested.

Reference:        Joshi, B. R. (1999). Veterinary Review, 14, 18-22

AGH – 2

A study on  the epidemiology and clinical significance of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats raised under both migratory and sedentary managements for a period of one year showed that although the mean worm burden in migratory goats was significantly higher than that of sedentary goats in all seasons, the faecal egg counts were higher in sedentary animals. In both systems, the infection was at sub-clinical level, however, the weight gain response in worm controlled kids was significantly higher than untreated animals managed under the farmer’s management. In the sedentary system, the treated kids gained 8.9 kg weight over a period of six months in comparison to 3.7 kg in untreated animals, while in the migratory management, the body weight gain of treated kids was 9.1 kg in comparison to 5.0 kg in the untreated controls over a period of one year. Despite the lower worm burdens, the clinical effect of infection was more severe in sedentary goats then in the migratory goats.

Reference:        Joshi, B. R. (2000). Proceedings of the 4th National workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research  in Nepal. NARC/NASRI,Lalitpur 179-184.

AGH – 3

Among the diseases of goats reported in the eastern hills, 23.3% of cases were respiratory problems. The analysis of goat post mortem records of Pakhribas Agricultural Centre (PAC) showed that deaths due to pneumonia were 31.6% of all deaths. None of the bacterial species except Pasteurella haemolytica (5.2%)  are considered as major causes of pneumonia. An attempt was made to isolate mycoplasmas from the goats of the PAC livestock farm and from village goat flocks. One hundred and thirty six nasal swabs from goats having purulent/serous nasal discharge and nine lung and pericardial fluid samples from post mortem cases were collected and subjected to mycoplasma isolation at PAC Veterinary Laboratory. Thirty five nasal swabs and four lung and pericardial fluid samples were found to be positive for mycoplasmas. With further laboratory confirmation and species identification, in Germany, eight samples identified to date showed Mycoplasma mycoides sub species mycoides (LC), Acholeplasma laidlawii, and Mycoplasma arginini. This is the first isolation of Mycoplasma from goats in Nepal. 

Reference:         Jha, V.C., Beier, T. (1996). Bulletin of Veterinary Science and Animal husbandry, Nepal, 24, 71-74

AGH - 4

The study conducted identify the extent, aetiological factors and suitable preventive and curative measures for neonatal mortality in kids in the eastern hills showed that the overall mortality in neonatal kids was 12.14%, which was high (19.3%) in Munga/Phalante and low (5.9%) in Chungmang sites. Parity number, birth weight of kids and age of kids was found negatively related with kid mortality, while type of birth was positively related. Diseases were the most important cause of neonatal kid mortality in all types of management, altitudes and environmental conditions, but predation and accidents were equally important under grazing management conditions. Major problems were associated with respiratory and digestive system with pneumonia caused by various organisms and gastrointestinal problems caused by coliform and Salmonella species indicate improper sanitary measures. Some organisms were found to be resistant against common antibiotics. Parasitic diseases also constitute important factor for kid mortality.  It can be said that coccidiosis, pneumonia, parasitic enteritis bacterial enteritis and pneumo-enteritis  complex were the diseases responsible for considerable loss in kids in neonatal stage. Similarly, bacterial infections leading to respiratory problems were more common in winter and pre monsoon season where as parasitic infections and coccidiosis  are more common in  during monsoon and post monsoon season of the year. On the other hand bacterial enteritis were more common during winter and monsoon seasons. 

Reference:        Aryal, M.P. (2002).  Proceedings of the 5th National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research  in Nepal. NARC/NASRI,Lalitpur : 150-156.

AGH - 5 

Seasonal occurrence (mainly in October-November) of a disease syndrome locally called 'Kumri' meaning weak back was observed in goats in Banke and other districts of western Terai in the last few years. Traumatic injury to the lumbar region, nutritional deficiencies and parasitism in the spinal cord were the likely causes considered. Based on the epidemiological pattern (seasonal occurrence, clinical symptoms, no temperature and no systemic infection, and no response to supplementation of vitamins and minerals) of the disease, the disease was provisionally diagnosed as cerebrospinal nematodiasis. This has been further substantiated by confirmation on the occurrence of parasites of Setaria spp. in cattle in this region, and treatment response of affected goats to diethylcarbamazine. However, there is a further need to demonstrate microfilaria in the spinal cord of affected goats. The current knowledge on the disease is reviewed and it is suggested that until further information on the disease is available, diethylcarbamazine could be a drug of choice for treatment of affected goats.

Reference:        Karki, K., B. N. Adhikari (2000). Bulletin of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 26.

AGH – 6

A total of 437 serum samples from sheep and goats were examined by Competitive ELISA, among them 170 samples (38.65%) were found positive for Pesti des petits ruminants (PPR). The highest sero prevalence was found in Rupendehi district of Western region. The antibody for PPR was detected from hill areas like Mustang and Darchula, as well.

Reference:         Manandhar, Salina.  and Poornima Manandhar (2003). Nepalese Veterinary Journal, 27.

AGH – 7 

Records of 41,944 clinical cases of goats (7,769 at Pakhribas Agricultural Centre (PAC) and 34,175 in the district veterinary hospitals) attended at PAC and in the veterinary hospitals of seven hill districts of eastern Nepal over a period of eight years were analyzed. The major clinical conditions diagnosed both at PAC and in the districts were parasitic diseases (74.9% and 72.7% at PAC and in the districts, respectively) and febrile conditions of unknown origins (12.0% and 10.6% at PAC and in the districts, respectively). Digestive disorders and general debility in the districts and major infectious diseases diagnosed at PAC were also of significance. It was concluded that the most pressing constraints for improving goat health and productivity are parasitic diseases (helminth parasites) and febrile condition of unknown origins (respiratory diseases). Future goat health programs need to tackle the major goat health constraints are discussed.  

Reference:        Thakuri, K.C.,  S. N. Mahato, R. P. Thakur  and R. K. Giri. 1994. Veterinary Review,

 10(1):1-5.

AGH –  8 

A study was conducted to evaluate the comparative efficacy fenbendazole, mebendazole and krimos power (an Ayurvedic preparation) against naturally occuring gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats at Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta. The efficacy of drugs was evaluated on the basis of absence of eggs in faeces or the decrease in their number by the 24th day post-treatment. Among the three drugs tested, a single drenching with fenbendazole at the dose rate of 10 mg per kg body weight was found to be superior (100%, 100% and 33% effective against strongyles, strongyloides and trichuris respectively followed by mebendazole at the dose rate of 10 mg per kg body weight) against gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats. Krimos powder was ineffective to treat the goats' infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The percentages efficacious of the three drugs against different species of gastrointestinal nematodes are discussed.

Reference:        Thakuri, K.C., R. P. Thakur, K. Rai.. 1994. Veterinary Review, 9(1):1-3.

AGH – 9 

A study was carried out to measure the effect of coccidiosis on growth rate in goats at Pakhribas Agricultural Centre (PAC). A total of twenty-two goats aged approximately two months old are used in this study. The goats were naturally infected with coccidia but all were treated with anthelmintics. Goats of one group were treated with commonly used coccidiostats (Sulmet and Amprolium) at recommended dose levels. While another group is kept control. With coccidiostats, faecal samples of both groups were examined daily for five days before treatment and on the 7, 14,21, 28 and 35 days post treatment. Oocyst per gram of faeces (OPG) and body weight of goats of both groups were also recorded. The results showed that neither of the coccidiostats were 100 per cent effective against coccidiosis. However, the drugs greatly reduced the faecal output. Analysis of the data showed significant (P<.001) effect of treatment on OPG at 7, 14 and 28 days of treatment, on OPG at 21 to 35 days post treatment was non-significant. Non significant effect of treatments on body weight but the analysis of covariance showed significant (P<0.05) effect of treatment on body weight at 21 and 35 days post treatment. 

Reference:        Thakur, R.P.,  and K. C. Rai. 1998. PAC Working Paper 231. Pakhribas Agriculture Centre, Pakhribas, Dhankuta

AGH – 10 

Parasitic gastroenteritis is one of the major causes of productivity loss in goats in Nepal. This report records a case of parasitic gastroenteritis in goats under a sedentary management system in a low hill (below 900 masl) village of Kaski district of western Nepal. The major symptoms in affected goats were diarrhoea, bottle jaw, and loss of appetite and inability to move. Examination of twelve representative faecal samples from the affected herd showed heavy infection of gastrointestinal nematode parasites. The major parasites recovered in the gut wash of one slaughtered goat (infected goat from affected herd) were Haemonchus spp. (49.4%), Trichostrongyles spp.(43.5%) followed by Oesophagostomum spp. (4.2%), Ostertagia spp. (2.5%) and Bunostomum spp. (0.4%). Possible causes of infection and their effective control measures have also been discussed. 

Reference:        Joshi, B.R., 1994. Veterinary Review, 9(1): 18-20.

Sheep and Goat : Health

ASGH - 1

A total of 20 gastrointestinal nematode species were recovered from the slaughtered sheep and goats reared under migratory and sedentary managements in the western hills of Nepal. Nematode fauna recovered from migratory animals was more diverse than from the sedentary animals reflecting a wider area covered for grazing by former. Migratory sheep harboured the highest number of nematode species followed by migratory goats and only ten species were recovered from sedentary goats. Trichostrongylus axei, was the commonest nematode species recovered from both species in either systems, followed by T.colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta. Whereas, Ostertagia nianquingtanggulaensis O. leptospicularis, T. davtiani,  T. trifurcata, Grossospiculagia occidentalis, Skrijabinema ovis and Chabertia ovina were recovered from migratory animals only.

Reference:         Joshi, B. R. (1997) Veterinary Review, 12(1), 30-32

ASGH : 2

Control of gastrointestinal nematode is only successful if the treatment regime is scheduled according to the local epidemiology of helminth infection, which is governed by climatic conditions and animal management system adopted in the area. In Nepalese hills and mountains, sheep and goats are raised under the sedentary and migratory management respectively and the epidemiological pattern of infection is more or less governed by the availability of moisture on the ground. The strategic control program of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats should thus aim to protect the animals during the wet monsoon months. An additional drenching prior to dry winter months would also help to reduce the production losses during the lean winter months. The present paper discusses these issues and outlines the strategy for nematode control in the sheep and goats of hills and mountains of Nepal.  Reference:       Joshi, B. R. (1998). Veterinary Review, 13, 1-5.

ASGH – 3

Gastrointestinal nematodes have been regarded as the important cause of limiting productivity of sheep and goats. In a series of field studies, sub-clinical parasitism was found to be common in both sheep and goats reared either under the sedentary or migratory managements. This infection was responsible for reduction in body weight gain by 57-114% in sheep and 93-160% in goats and the mortality of up to 33% in sedentary lambs.  The main period of pasture infection was confined to the wet summer months between April-October with a very low level of infection during rest of the year. Trichostrongylus spp  was the most prevalent species followed by Ostertagia spp in the migratory and Haemonchus contortus in the sedentary animals. The flocking places and the alpine pastures constituted the main foci of infection in the migratory animals, whereas, the community grazing areas were the source of infection for the sedentary animals. Considering the epidemiological pattern of infection, the control strategy for gastrointestinal nematodes should be the protection of growing lambs and goats throughout the wet summer months followed by the treatment of adult and yearlings in both species by the late autumn or early winter, so that the animals could be maintained worm-free or with minimum level of infection during the winter and dry summer months. 

Reference:        Joshi, B. R. (1996). Bulletin of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Nepal, 24, 59-70

ASGH – 4

The trichostrongylod nematode  Ostertagia nianquingtanggulaensis K’ung&Li, 1965, previously recorded only from sheep in Tibet is redescribed and is shown to be a common parasite of both sheep and goats at higher altitudes in the Himalayan foothills of western Nepal. Hergage examination indicated that infective larvae can over winter on snow covered slopes. Use of tracer animals confirmed that migratory flocks are exposed to infection when grazing on alpine pastures during the summer months. In contrast, nearby non migratory flocks kept at lower altitudes did not harbour O.  nianquingtanggulaensis  and tracer animals grazed with these flocks did not become infected with this species.

Reference:        Joshi, B. R. Gibbons, l.M. and Jacobs, D.E. (1997). Journal of Helminthology, 71, 21-27.

ASGH- 5

Studies on various approaches and technologies on improvement of health, nutrition and flock management showed that technologies on gastrointestinal parasite control, poisoning treatment, nutritional supplementation and predation control reduced the flock mortality, increased body weight gain of young and yearling lambs and kids and advanced the mating and parturition for few months better suited for survival and growth of young crops. Control of gastrointestinal nematodes during wet summer months by monthly treatment of anthelmintics improved the body weight gain of treated lambs and kids by 3.8 and 2.2 kg over the untreated controls. Similarly oral drench of Sodium thiosulphate solution @5-10 gm per animal was effective to save the animals from natural poisoning with aconite plants. The solar lighting and nylon net enclosure was very effective to control predation during night. The anthelmintic treatment and nutritional supplementation during winter was very effective to alleviate stunting syndrome of yearling lambs, this approach induced earlier mating and lambing/kidding in the adult does and ewes. All thse responses were significant to improve overall flock productivity and income from the flocks. Introduction of these technologies in the flocks in a package of practice will support the viability and sustainability of the system and increase its productivity consequently leading to the continuity and contribution of the migratory system to local and national economy.

Reference:        Joshi, B. R., Joshi, H.D. and Shrestha, B. S. (2004. Workshop Proceedings, on HARP Project on Improving Migratory small ruminant system (HARP PP 110/01) pp. 15-22. 

ASGH -  6

Epidemiological and production effects studies conducted for a period of one year showed that the main infection period was confined between April-October relating closely to the rainfall pattern and moisture availability. Grazing areas around the flocking places and the alpine pastures constitute the main foci of infection. Ostertagia nianquingtanggulaensis followed by Trichostrongylus spp were the predominant nematodes with Haemonchus contortus infection confined only to early summer months at lower altitudes. Pasture infection of different nematode species varied according to seasons and altitude range. While mixed infection of H.contortus,

Ostertagia spp and Trichostrongylus spp was recorded below 2300 masl, only Ostertagia spp was recorded above 3500 masl. The faecal egg counts in the ewes  were consistently higher than the nannies but seasonal trend was similar. The effect of infection on animal production in pair matched groups of lambs and kids maintained worm free by regular anthelmintic treatments showed that body weight gain of worm free lambs and kids was respectively 110 and 87 percent more than that of animals kept under farmer’s traditional management. These findings suggests that pattern of gastrointestinal nematode infection in migratory sheep and goats is seasonal and causes considerable loss in production. Hence, the growing animals should be protected during main infection season.

Reference:        Joshi, B. R. (1999). Proceedings, 17th International conference of WAAVP. 

ASGH : 7

Two migratory flocks (GP2 and GG2) of Ghanpokhara village of Lamjung District where footrot was endemic were observed for footrot lesions during various stages of migration in the year 1993. These flocks left the village free of infection in April. When inspected at alpine pastures in August, none of the sheep were affected with footrot whilst the prevalence in goats in GP2 and GG2 was 5.4% and 10.4%, respectively. In November, sheep and goats of both flocks were affected with a prevalence of 14.7% and 16.5% respectively in sheep and goats of GP2, and 9.7% and 5.1%, respectively, in sheep and goats of GG2. These observations provided the direct evidence on transmission of footrot during descending migration through the forest (October-November). Previous studies (Ghimire and Egerton, 1996) have identified that the period of ascending migration through the forest (May -June) also to be favourable for footrot transmission. Therefore, both the periods of ascending and descending migration to and from the alpine pastures are the risk periods for footrot transmission in these flocks. Any prophylactic measure instituted to control footrot in these flocks should, therefore, aim to protect animals for the whole period of six months(May to November) sent on migration.

Reference:         Ghimire, S.C. (1997). Bulletin of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 25.

ASGH - 8

Virulent footrot introduced into the country in the 1960s was endemic in migratory flocks of Kaski, Lamjung and Manang districts of Gandaki zone. Continuous efforts to control and possibly eradicate the disease from this area prevented its further spread, and controlled the severity and prevalence of the disease in endemic flocks. The disease, however proved very difficult to be eradicated from some flocks due to its continuous recurrence during migration. To overcome management complications associated with annual migration, Dichelobater nodosus, the essential transmitting agent of footrot, involved in these outbreaks were extensively isolated and characterized. Only isolates of two serogroups i.e.serogroup B and E, were identified to be associated with virulent footrot in these flocks. As these isolates were different from the prototypes used in vaccine production, and as the multivalent footrot vaccines are less potent than the mono or bivalent footrot vaccines, specific bivalent vaccine against footrot in Nepal was produced and used to control footrot in these flocks. Specific bivalent vaccine provided protective immunity for more than six months spent on migration. Use of this vaccine together with other management plans aimed at eradicating virulent footrot from this area has resulted in disappearance of virulent footrot in these flocks since 1994. Results of extensive clinical and serological surveillance of the disease so for suggest the elimination of virulent footrot from Nepal. Disease surveillance activities are still ongoing.

Reference:        Ghimire, S.C. (2000). Bulletin of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 26

 ASGH – 9

Studies on various approaches and technologies on improvements in health, nutrition and flock management in the migratory flocks of Nepal showed that technologies on gastrointestinal parasite control, poisoning treatment, nutritional supplementation and predation control reduced the flock mortality, increased the body weight gain of young and yearling lambs and kids and advanced the mating and parturition by few months, which is better suited for survival and growth of young animals. Treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes with anthelmintics at monthly internals during wet summer months improved the body weight gain of treated lambs and kids by 3.8 and 2.2 kg over the untreated controls. Similarly, oral drench of sodium thiosulphate solution @ 5-10 gm per animal was effective to save the animals from natural poisoning with aconite plants. The solar lighting and nylon net enclosure was very effective to control predation during night. The anthelmintic treatment and nutritional supplementation during winter was highly effective to alleviate stunting syndrome of yearling lambs, as well as inducing earlier mating and lambing/kidding in the adult ewes and does. All these approaches when introduced in an integrated manner were highly effective to improve overall flock productivity and income from the flocks. Introduction of these of these technologies in the flocks in a package of practices could support the viability and sustainability of the system and increase flock productivity. It is thus important to develop the mechanism to transfer these technologies to the migratory management system to protect it from declining, and support its continuity and contribution to the local and national economy.

Reference:        Joshi, B.R. and B.S. Shrestha (2005). Nepalese Veterinary Journal, 27

ASGH – 10 

The responses to single anthelmintic treatment with Ivermectin injection at early winter was evaluated in a flock of migratory sheep and goats of Ghanpokhara village of Lumjung district. The positive response of the treatment was evident in both species and age groups but the magnitude was variable. While the treated ewes maintained their body weight throughout the winter, the controls lost about 7% of their body weight. In the lambs the response was even more spectacular as the treated lambs gained 233% higher body weight than the controls. The response of adult goats was in the similar trend as the ewes but the weight gain difference in the treated and untreated kids were of similar magnitude. These finding indicated that a single anthelmintic treatment of the migratory sheep and goats at the beginning of the winter will be have significant positive effect for improving the productivity of the flocks.  

Reference:        Joshi, B.R. and H. D. Joshi 1999. In: S. P. Neopane and R. C. Khanal (eds.), Proceedings of the Third National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal, 26-28

ASGH - 11  

A field study on aconite poisoning in migratory sheep and goat and the efficacy of sodium thiosulphate as an antidote against the poisoning was carried out in alpine pasture of Kaski District in 1994. Poisoning cases in migratory sheep and goats were 3.22 and 2.17% of the total population of sheep and goats in the flocks. The difference in poisoning cases between the two species was found signification (P<0.05) which may be due to the difference in susceptibility to the poisoning and selective feeding habits. Age and sex were also found to have influenced the poisoning significantly (P<0.05). Young sheep and goats (<1 year of age) were poisoned more often than the young adults (1-2 years of age) and adults. This may be due to the fact that the young animals are exposed to the poisonous plants for the first time in their life and have less resistance to the poisonous effect and, also required small amount of aconite plants for toxic effect. The percentage recovery without any treatment (natural recovery) was found to be 41% in sheep and 58% in goats, whereas, with any treatment the recovery rates were 79% and 74%, respectively. In sheep, 30 ml of 5% sodium thiouslphate intravenous (i/v) and 10g of sodium thiosulphate oral gave 100% recovery (P<0.001, exact test), but in goats both 5g and 10g of sodium thiosulphate gave poor response (67% and 87%) (P>0.05). On logistic regression analysis, the overall recovery rate was found to have influenced only by treatments (P=0.005), but not by species, age or sex. The effectiveness of the treatment was found in the order of 30ml of 5% sodium thiosulphate solution i/v, 10g of sodium thiosulphate oral and 5g of sodium thiosulphate oral. 

Reference:        Shrestha,H.K., and S. C. Ghimire. 1996. LARC Working Paper No. 96/8. Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, Lumle, Kaski

ASGH – 12 

In Nepal, sheep and goats on lower mountain slopes forage near villages, but at higher altitudes mixed flocks of sheep and goats undertake and annual migration to utilize alpine pastures. As series of field studies compared the epidemiology and clinical significance of gastrointestinal nematodes under those two systems. Trichostrongylus spp. Were most prevalent, followed by Ostertagia nianquingtanggulaensis (recorded for the first time outside of Tibet in migratory and Haemonchus contortus in sedentary flocks. Worm burdens of migratory animals were higher than those of sedentary flocks but faecal egg count were generally lower. This reflects the occurrence of  much higher proportion of hypobiotic larvae in the migratory flock and a better plane of nutrition. Faecal egg counts and use of tracer animals indicated that the main period of transmission extended from April to October. Higher worm burdens were recorded from sheep than from goats, reflecting differences in grazing behavior and the availability of browsing vegetation. The periparturient egg rise was more prolonged in migratory than in sedentary ewes but was of little epidemiological significance in goats. Sub-sets of sheep and goats under both systems showed significantly superior weight gains when protected by intensive anthelmintic therapy. At both high and low altitudes, larva recoveries from grass plots seeded with H. contortus eggs were significantly higher during the wet months. Infective larvae generally survived for one to seven months, depending on season, but some were recorded even after 13 months. A comparison of three native sheep breeds indicated that the Kage expressed the highest resistance to H. contortus infection as evidenced by lower worm burdens, lower fecal egg counts and higher blood eosinophilia. A pilot study to investigate the possibility of using adenosine deaminase (ADA) polymorphism as a marker for genetic resistance to H. contortus indicated that animals with ADA 1-1(FF) isozyme might be associated with enhanced ability to withstand infection. 

Reference:        Joshi, B.R. 1995. Ph. D. Thesis. Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, UK.

Ruminants  : Health

ARH – 1

Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Nepal causing heavy economic loss. Epidemics are reported from all parts of the country. Although four serotypes O,A,C and Asia –1 are isolated from the country, the predominant serotypes are O and Asia-1. The present approach to control the epidemics is the vaccination of animals by imported multivalent vaccines, however, the response is not always satisfactory due to various reasons. The present paper explains the present situation of FMD in the country and suggests for future course of action.

Reference:        Gongol, G.N. (1998). Veterinary Review, 13, 28-29).

Swine/Buffaloes/Humans : Health

AASWBHH - 1

This chapter of the monograph deals with the prevalence of cysticercosis in pigs, buffaloes and human beings in Nepal identified by faecal examination, lingual examination, ELISA and EITB in different parts of the country. The difference in prevalence rate between some communities has also been evaluated. The strategies for prevention and control has also been suggested.

Reference:        Joshi, D.D, Maharjan, M. (2004). Asian Parasitology Serieas monograph vol.2. 141-153

AASWBHH -2

This chapter of the monograph deals with the epidemiology, prevalence of hydosiosis in intermediate host animals and public health impact due to hydatidosis and number of cases operated due to hydatidosis and diagnostic approaches of echinococcosis using ELISA and PCR technologies and risk factor and public health significance of  echinococcosis/hydatidosis in Nepal.

Reference:        Joshi, D.D, Maharjan, M. (2004). Asian Parasitology Serias monograph vol.2. 267-281

 Swine : Health

ASWH - 1

Japanese Encephalitis is a mosquito-borne viral disease and causes encephalitis in human as well as in horses and abortion in pigs. Pigs are considered as the most important natural amplifying animal for Japanese Encephalitis virus. A random sero-survey was conducted in Nepal from September 2002 to March 2003 by collecting 270 serum samples from pigs, ducks and horses covering 16 districts of the country. Out of 270 samples tested, 55.18% were found positive for the presence of antibodies against JE infection

Reference:        Pant,G.R., R.M. Shrestha, D.R. Ratala and S.N. Mahato (2005). Nepalese veterinary Journal, 28

ASWH - 2

Endoparasites have been considered as an important factor limiting pig production. There is considerable loss in pig productivity in terms of growth rates and mortality due to endoparasites. A study on epidemiology and control of endoparasites in pigs of different altitudes of Eastern hills were carried out. The major internal parasites, (Trichostrongylus axei, Hyostrongylus rubidis, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Ascaris suum Trichuris and coccidia of pigs were identified. The parasites identified are considered to be highly pathogenic species for pigs. The overall annual prevalence was recorded to be very high (90%). The level of infection also varied in different altitudes and in different months of the year. There was significant effect of humidity in both prevalence and extent of infection in all altitudes and in different months of the year. Little effect could be seen of temperature on these parasites. Age of piglets have also significant effect on the level of infection of Ascaris, although other parasites were affected by age. The eggs per gram of faeces (epg) counts were greatly reduced in pigs receiving treatment compared to untreated control groups. At high altitude, the mean body weight after one year was 59 kg, 95 kg, 121.7 kg and 124 kg in control group, single drenching group, double drenching group and multiple drenching groups respectively. Whilst in mid altitude, the comparable figures were 54.9 kg, 113kg, 125.5 kg and 122 kg for the same treatment. Treatments have highly significant (P<0.001) effect on the body weight of pigs in both altitudes. The body weight of signal drenching group was significantly higher than control groups. Body weight of double drenching group pigs was significantly higher than single drenching group but there was no difference between double and multiple drenching. Hence, double drenching is preferred, as this would be the most cost effective treatment for controlling endoparasities in pigs. Double drenching (June and August) with Anthelmintics(Albendazole) @ 15mg/kg body wt proved to be highly effective against endoparasitic diseases  of pigs.

Reference:        Thakur, R.P. (2003). Proceedings on 7th National Conference of Nepal Veterinary Association

ASWH 3 

This study was conducted at IAAS livestock farm Rampur, Chitwan during August to November 2000 to determine the hematological response and response of iron supplementation to prevent piglet anemia in Yorkshirex Landrace piglets. In the experimental period of 56 days hematological parameters e.g. Hb, RBC count PCV in imferon injected group (G1; and in oral supplemented group (G2) were significantly higher than control group (G3). Result of present study revealed that administration of iron both orally and parentally was effective to prevent piglet anemia and other secondary complication to minimize farm economic loss. Iron supplementation in piglet should be in the routine practice to check piglet anemia and other secondary complications. Administration of Imferon @ 2 ml on the 4th and 14th day intramuscularly in hind leg and oral iron preparation 1.8% ferrous sulfate @ 4ml per piglet daily for seven days from 24 hours of their birth were found to be very useful in preventing piglet anaemia.

Reference:          Singh, S.,  S.K. Karna, R.K. Bhattrai, S. Bhandari (2003). Nepalese Veterinary Journal, 27

 Farm Animals: Health

AFAH - 1

Serum samples of 115  buffaloes, 98 cattle 29 sheep and 32 goats were subjected to screening against Johne’s disease using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Specific antibodies to M. paratuberculosis were detected in the serum samples of 34% buffaloes and goats, 27% cattle and 24% sheep.

Reference:        Joshi, H.D., Joshi, B. R. and Shrestha, H. K. (2000.  Proceedings of the , 4th National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal . NARC /   NASRI,Lalitpur: 185-189

AFAH - 2

The experimental feeding of rice straw to fasciola free housed calves fed only on tree fodder, concentrate feed and rice straw for a period three months showed that the calves picked up infection during the stall feeding period. The number of flukes recovered from calves were relatively low ranging between 7-28 per animal on slaughter.  The findings of the study conformed the role of rice straw for transmitting fasciola infection  especially to stall fed animals fed on rice straw which constitutes an important forage resource of farm animals in Nepal

Reference:        Joshi, B. R. (1989). Proceedings of the, 6th International Conference of Institutes for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, 355-357.

AFAH - 3

Fasciolosis is the most common animal disease and one of the important causes of deterioration in livestock productivity in Nepal. It is widespread throughout the country affecting all species of ruminants. Despite increased awareness of the disease and massive increase in the use of anthelmintics, there appears to be no impact on the prevalence of the disease in the last two decades. Failure to control the disease was mainly due to lack of information about its epidemiology in the country. In recent years, however, a substantial amount of information has become available to understand the environment-host-parasite interrelationships. Some control approaches bases on these information have been discussed in this paper.

Reference:        Mahato, S.N. , Harrison L.J.S. and Hammond, J.A.  (1997). Bulletin of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 25.

AFAH - 4

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is endemic in Nepal and is of significant economic importance in the agricultural production system of the country. The disease is a major constraint on effort designed to upgrade the quality of livestock through the introduction of high yielding improved breed of animal. Out of 75 districts, serotypes of FMD virus has been identified in 61districts of Nepal. Of the seven standard serotypes, O,A,C and Asia-1 have been isolated. The socio-economic situation in the country is not conductive to the adoption of a slaughter policy in the control of FMD. Vaccination is likely to be the cornerstone around which any future policy will be built. The epidemiology of FMD and national strategies for FMD control and eradication are outlined. Zonal concept for FMD vaccination campaign and efficient disease diagnostic services are discussed in details.

Reference:         Gongal and N.P.S. Karki (2000).  Bulletin of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 26

AFAH – 5

Among the seven different serotypes of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus, serotypes O, A, C and Asia 1 have been detected in Nepal. FMD outbreak due to serotypes O has been found to be the most predominant type (71%) followed by Asia 1 (16 %), A (10%) and C (3%). However, outbreak of FMD serotype C has not been recorded in the country since 1996. Different topotypes and genotypes (strains) of serotype O have also been isolated by World Reference Laboratory (WRL), Pirbright from the samples sent from different countries. Pan Asia was a new and virulent strain of serotype O that belonged to the Near East-South Asia (NE-SA) topotype and was identified from India in 1990. Among the 159 samples  collected during 2003 for serotyping, six samples were  sent to WRL, Pirbright for laboratory confirmation and antigenic characterization. The test at WRL confirmed them to be of serotype O. On further characterization, Pan Asia strain was isolated from the sample taken from Kathmandu valley, which belonged to the Middle East- South Asia (ME-SA) Topotype. A different strain IND 2001 (further phylogenitic analysis yet to confirm this strain) was also isolated from the sample taken from Sunsari, which belonged to the same topotype. Hence, emergence of such new strains of FMD virus has necessiated for a laboratory based detailed epidemiological study, which will be helpful to understand the epidemiology, develop the vaccine and vaccination strategy for the country.

Reference:        Adhikari, B.N., and K. C. Thakuri (2005.  Nepalese veterinary Journal, 28

AFAH – 6

Although there are more than 100 zoonotic diseases and infections around the world, 12 well-documented zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Nepal. There is a lack of reliable epidemiological information on zoonoses except rabies and Japanese encephalitis. The role of veterinarians in food safety, consumer protection and animal welfare is still grossly underestimated. Unfortunately, there is no appropriate government policy and programme for zoonoses control. There is an urgent need of harmonizing national food safety standards with international standards, SPS measures in the context of Nepal's accession to WTO membership. A holistic approach is needed for zoonoses control and enhancement of veterinarian's role in food safety and animal welfare. An independent VPH institution should be established at the national level with proper mandate and budgetary provision. Government institutions will have to play a greater role in disease surveillance, execution of regulatory functions, formulation and implementation of appropriate policy and strategy for zoonoses control in next 20 years. Specific disease control programme with legislative support should be formulated and executed on a zonal basis. Residue monitoring programme should be launched immediately to protect national livestock industries and promote export of value added livestock products in the international market.

Reference:         Gongal, G.N. (2003).. Proceedings on 7th National Conference of Nepal Veterinary Association.

AFAH – 7 

The carcasses of 14,490 animals slaughtered for meat purpose in Kathmandu valley were examined for hydatid cysts. The prevalence rate was highest in buffalo (18.60%) followed by pigs (15.51%) and sheep and goat (5.95%). The average prevalence rate of hydatid was found to be 9.08%. The hydatid percentage in liver (70.22% in buffalo and 55.97% in sheep and goat) was lower than in lungs (72.55% in buffalo and 62.48% in sheep and goat). Measures for effective control and elimination of  hydatidosis in Nepal is suggested.

Reference:         Joshi, D.D.  (1985). Bulletin of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 13

AFAH – 8  

It has been estimated that liver fluke infestation causes losses of 200 million Nepalese rupees (US$ 20 million per annum), but details of how this estimate was calculated described. Other workers have estimated that losses due to fascioliasis are about Rs.85 million per year. Fasciola directly and indirectly reduces the economic performance of ruminant livestock in a number of ways. These are through reduced liveweight gain, growth rate, milk yield, wool production, fertility and draugth power. Furthermore, the direct cost of drugs, drenching, laboratories and research also cause enormous economic loss to the nation. 

Reference:        Thakur, R.P. 1990. PAC Working Paper No 5. Pakhribas Agriculture Centre, Pakhribas, Dhankuta

Dogs : Health

ADH –  1

Biological and histo-pathological tests used for confirmatory diagnosis of rabies in the State Medical, Food and Veterinary Laboratory of Kassel were compared with fluorescent antibody test on the basis of existing laboratory records. The test results were analyzed to define sensitivity, specificity and other characteristics of the diagnostic tests. Fluorescent antibody test appeared to be the most reliable diagnostic method together with biological test (Virus isolation in cell culture) for confirmatory diagnosis of rabies.

Reference:         Gongal, G.N. and K.Wagner (2000).  Bulletin of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 26.

ADH - 2

Serum neutralization tests carried out on 46 and 59 dogs ward 19 and 20 respectively of Kathmandu municipality on the day of vaccination and after 14 days of vaccination with Biocan - R showed that protective levels of anti body (i.e.> 0.5 I.U./ml) increased following vaccination. Protective antibody titres in dogs at the day of vaccination can be attributed to protective levels of antibody from preceding vaccination carried over to the day of vaccination. After 14 days of vaccination, 100% dogs from ward 19 had achieved protective levels of antibodies against rabies from the vaccination with the mean titre of 7.25 (range 0.98-15). Only 94% of the vaccinated animals from ward 20 achieved protective antibody with a mean titre of 9.11 (range 2.76 -11.03). Two dogs in ward 20 showed titres lower on day 14 than the base line titre, the reason for which is unclear. This study shows that most of the dogs developed high levels of neutralizing antibody titres in 14 days post vaccination with Biocan-R vaccine. However, as the monitoring of neutralizing antibody titres was not carried out for a longer period, the revaccination schedule for this vaccine could not be determined from this study. 

Ref;  Joshi, D.D.,  A. Wandeler, C. Glick, B. Chhetri, K. Knowles (2003). Nepalese Veterinary Journal, 27.

Avian : Health

AAH - 1

This study was undertaken during 1996 to 1998 to find out the occurrence of poultry diseases in Chitwan district of Nepal. Disease-wise, season-wise and age-wise cases of broiler and layer birds examined at different diagnostic centers of Chitwan valley namely Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Rampur, Agro vet Laboratory, Narayangarh, National Livestock and Poultry Disease Diagnostic Clinic, Narayangarh and District Livestock Services Office, Bharatpur were analyzed. Out of 1956 cases studied, viral diseases were encountered highest (31%) followed by bacterial (25%) and protozoan disease (17%) in both broiler and layers. Among the viral diseases Gumboro disease was the most common (50%) followed by Newcastle disease (40%), infectious bronchitis (4%) and Marek's disease (3%). Among the bacterial diseases, chronic respiratory disease was the most prevalent (58%) followed by omphalitis (17%), colibacilloses (11%), enteritis and necrotic enteritis (6%) and bacillary white diarrhoea (5%). Coccidiosis was the most common (77%) protozoan and parasitic disease followed by ascariasis and tapeworm infection. Brooder pneumonia was found most prevalent (21%) among the fungal diseases followed by mycotoxicoses. Visceral gout was also prevalent (18%) in various parts of Chitwan. Viral and protozoan diseases were most common in the summer season whereas bacterial and fungal diseases were common in the autumn. In broilers, 15 to 30 days age groups were mostly affected whereas in layers 1 to 3 months old birds were most susceptible to various types of diseases.

Reference:        Dhakal, I.P.,  R.P. Poudel and N. Parajuli (2000) Bulletin of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 26.

AAH - 2

Highly pathogenic avian influenza has not been reported in Nepal to date. A serological survey for antibodies to avian influenza viruses was carried out in different poultry farms of 5 districts of Nepal. A total of 64 serum samples were collected and these sera were tested by C-ELISA at Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Australia for antibodies against influenza A viruses. None of the tested sera were found positive, thus giving scientific evidence for the absence of influenza A viruses in domestic poultry of Nepal.

Reference:        Pant, G.R. (2005). Nepalese veterinary Journal, 28.

AAH - 3

Nepalese poultry industry has experienced Inclusion Body Hepatitis-Hydropericardium Syndrome, a new emerging disease of economic importance during the year 2003. Officially, firsthand notification was recorded when postmortem of four broiler birds was done in the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL) on 4 July 2003. The provisional diagnosis was made at CVL as Leechi Disease and was confirmed as Inclusion Body hepatitis-Hydropericardium syndrome at Indian Veterinary Research institute (IVRI), India. The prevalence study conducted in the Kathmandu valley and Kabhre district showed that the disease has achieved the enzootic status. Since its appearance, it has caused an estimated financial loss of NRs 1.5 million. Outbreaks have also been recorded in parent stocks and commercial layers as well. Occurrence of the disease has also been confirmed in the Kailali district. 

Reference:        Karna, V.K. (2003). Proceedings on 7th national conference of Nepal Veterinary Association.

AAH - 4 

A total of 406 serum samples from breeding poultry birds of Pakhribas Agricultural Centre (PAC), Dhankuta, its extension areas, Tarahara Livestock Research Farm (TLRF), Sunsari and Lampatan Animal Husbandry Research Centre (LAHRC), Kaski were examined for the presence of Salmonella antibodies. The plate agglutination test using stained Salmonella pullorum antigen detected percentages of reactors ranging from 52 at PAC to 67 at TLRF. The organisms isolated from the reactors of the PAC flock were identified biochemically and serologically as S. pullorum. Various aspects of S. pullorum infection including control measures are also discussed.

Reference:        Mahato,S.N.,  K.C. Thakuri, P.B. Thapa, J.N. Yadav (1989-90).  Bulletin of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Nepal, 17-18

AAH – 5  

Efficacy of oral NDV4HR strain vaccine against Nepalese velogenic field strain of NDV (ND-NP1/95) was investigated in experiment 1. Oral  vaccination with drinking water provided 80% protection against the challenge with ND-NP1/95, a very virulent local strain of NDV. The result of field based vaccination were rather inconclusive. Experiment II was carried out to simulate the natural field storage condition and their impact  upon protection offered by V4HR strain vaccine. The vaccine held at 28oC  and 37 oC for a expanded period of 6 days did not offered protection against challenge with velogenic ND-NP1/95 where as vaccine held at 4 oC offered protection against same challenge.

Reference:        Bohara,K.B., U. Mishra 1996. Proceedings of the 1st National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research  in Nepal. NARC/NASRI,Lalitpur, 189-196

AAH – 6 

Prevalence of Egg Drop Syndrome (EDS 76) virus in broiler parent stock and commercial layer farms of Kathmandu, nagarkot and Bhairahawa has been confirmed serologically. The egg production in affected flocks reduced from 79% to 7% in parent stock and from 79% to 37% in commercial layer flocks over a period of 10 weeks. All affected flocks produced abnormal eggs for several days. Available control measures reviewed and action to be taken immediately for the control of EDS along with future strategies for preventing the losses is suggested.

Reference:         Bohara,K.B. 1996.  Proceedings of the 1st National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research  in Nepal. NARC/NASRI,Lalitpur 197-201.

AAH – 7  

The study conducted to evaluate the pathogenicity and immunosuppressive effects of three intermediate and one hot strain of Infectious Bursal disease (IBD) vaccine. Sixteen day old broiler chickens were vaccinated with these vaccines and three weeks post IBD vaccine, they were also vaccinated with orally in water NDV4HR vaccine. The pathogenicity was evaluated by observing clinically visible signs and lesions on body surfaces and bursa typical for IBD infection. Immunosupressive effects were evaluated by determining the responses of IBD vaccinated birds to NDV vaccine. Bursal lesions and mild muscular lesions were noticed in all four vaccine groups but no externally visible clinical symptoms with mortality is recorded for non of the vaccine groups. All group respond to NDV4HR vaccine with variable results.

Reference:        Bohara, K.B. 1996. Proceedings of the 1st National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research  in Nepal. NARC/NASRI,Lalitpur 202-211.

 CHAPTER –  III  –  ANIMAL SCIENCE

COMPENDIUM  –   AQUACULTURE : PART – I I I

Fish:  Breeding

AQFBr - 1

First time the artificial breeding of riverine local fish of Katle has been successfully done in Trisuli Fisheries Research center

Reference:        Rai, A.K., 1978.  Jr of Nat. Hist. Museum.45-50

AQFBr -   2 

Female broods, Schizothorax plagiostomus, spawned in October/November and in February/March. The survival rate from egg to hatching was higher (>50%) in October/November and lower (<25%) in February/March. Hatching time ranged from 10-12 days at 11-16°C. Mean fecundity/kg fish was about 12000eggs.

Reference:        Joshi, P.L; 1996, Proceedings of  the  First National Workshop on   Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu: 98-103

AQFBr -  3 

Four females (41-99 g) were spawned after 15-16 h of single injection of Ovaprim, LHRH and PG at the rate of 06-0.8 ml/kg, 30 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, respectively. The fertilization rate of eggs was >80% and hatched out within 24-25 h after fertilization at 27-30°C. The newly hatched larvae measured 6-7 mm in TL and 2.8-3.2 mg in BW. The yolk sac absorbed within 4 days of hatching.

Reference:        Shrivastav, P.K; 1997.  Proceedings of  the  Second National Workshop on   Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu :  47- 49

AQFBr -  4 

The oocyte developed to stage IV in broods treated with single administration of ovaprim and pituitary extract. Oocytes degenerated 30 h after hormone administration in broods treated with single dose of pituitary extract and ovaprim. A combination of pituitary extract and 17a20b Dihydroxy Progesterone (Diol) hormone showed superiority in oocytes maturation than the mixture of pituitary extract and 17aHydroxy Progesterone and could reach condition V both in transparency phase and germinal vesicle stage. The types, combinations and method of administration of hormones affected the maturation of oocyte in sahar than the single dose administration.

Reference:        Baidhya, A.P., 1998. Maturity stage of oocytes on different types of hormone induced sahar, Tor putitora

AQFBr  -  5

The spawning success rate was increased to 70% in silver carp and 95% in bighead carp by providing supplementary pellet feed on ad libitum basis and calculated feeding rate was increased to 1.2% of total body weight.

Reference:         Baidya, A.P., 1998.   , Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal.: 75-77

AQFBr -  6

The mean hatchability remained low (13.3%) irrespective of brood age group. There was no significant difference in hatchability, advanced rate and abnormality among the broods of 1+, 2+ and table fish. The frequency of brood fish with 0% hatchability was too high 70.5%, which was directly related poor hatchability. The low hatchability may be due to the lack of nutrition in brood fish.

Reference:        Yamada, T., 1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal. 78-81

AQFBr -  7

Broods of Sahar from the wild stock were reared in the earthen ponds since 1989 to study their spawning behavior. Eleven spawners (4-6kg) were stripped and collected 1,89,610 eggs. The average fecundity/kg body weight of the female was about 3100 eggs. Fertilization and hatching rates were 90% and 81%, respectively. Eggs were 2.25-2.80 mm in diameter. Larvae were hatched at 60-80 h after fertilization at 19.5-20.4°C.

Reference:        Bashnet, S.R; 1999,   Proceedings of  the  Third d National Workshop on   Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu  :  85-89

AQFBr -  8

The spawning behavior of goldfish was studied from February to July 2000 in natural condition. Goldfish produced their young ones from 29 February to 16 May 2000. Fertilization and hatching rates were 76-87.5% and 71-80%, respectively. A total of 499 offspring were produced at 7 batches. About 91% small fries were lost out of 499 individuals.

Reference:        Bajaracharya,m K.; 2002. Proceedings of  the  5th National Workshop on   Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu : 51-55

AQFBr  -  9

Broods of Sahar from the wild stock have been rearing in the earthen ponds since 1989 to domesticate and study their spawning behaviour. Altogether 11 spawner (4.5-6.0 kg) in 1998/'99, 5 spawner (6.6-7.5 kg) in 1999/'00 and 6 spawner (2.2-4.3 kg) in 2000/'01were stripped and collected 189610, 138950 and 92945 eggs, respectively. The average fecundity (eggs per kg of body weight) of the female was 1000-6000eggs. Fertilization and hatching rates were more than 80% and 66%, respectively. Eggs were 2.0-2.9 mm in diameter and hatched at 84-125 h after fertilization at 19-22°C. 

Reference:        Nepal, A.P., 2002.  Proceedings of  the  5th National Workshop on   Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu:  69-75

AQFBr  -  10

Total number of female used was 341,231 and 374 of 2 years age and 96, 114 and 81 of 3 years age in 1997/'98, 1998/'99 and 1999/'00, respectively. Hatching rate was 13.9-36.8% in 2 years age group and 9.9-29.5% in 3 years age group. Out of total hatched alevins, abnormality remained 2.0-3.6% in 2 years group and 1.5-3.5% in 3 years group. Mortality rate was 4.2-8.5% in 2 years age group and 4.3-30.7% in 3 years age group before reached to swimming stage.

Reference:        Bashenet, S.R.; 2004. Proceedings of  the  Sixth  National Workshop on   Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu:

AQFBr  -  11

Breeding of freshwater prawn has been carried out successfully at RARS, Tarahara recently and post larvae have been distributed to some of the innovative farmers. Prawn larvae stocked at the rate of 50 larvae/l of brackish water (10 ppt) in different buckets has the survival rate of 25%. Rearing of larvae was by feeding on brine shrimp nauplii. The production result obtained was quite impressive.

Reference:         Thapa, A.B.,  2004.   Proceedings of  the  Sixth National Workshop on   Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu.

AQFBr -  12

Total 14 females and 27 males (0.6-3.9 kg size; 3-5 year age) were used for spawning and about 344,250 viable green eggs were collected. Fertilization and hatching rates were >95% and about 59%, respectively. About 46% of hatched larvae grown up to swimming stage larvae, which were fed with 3 different diets. The larvae fed with only zooplankton had the highest survival rate (61%), followed by fed with zooplankton and 35% crude protein containing diet (57%) and fed with 35% crude protein containing diet only (1.7%).

Reference:        Basnet, S.R.. 2004.  Fifth National Animal Science Convention. NASA. Kathmandu, Nepal:  75-79

AQFBr   - 13

The female and male (120-200 g) were injected with Ovaprim at the rate of 0.5 ml/kg body weight. Female spawned at 10-15 h after hormone treatment on spawning bed. Larvae were hatched within 24 h after fertilization. The fertilization and hatching rates were 50-70% and 70-80%, respectively. This method was successful to breed the same brood continuously for 2 years without sacrificing the male to obtain milt.

Reference:        Gurung, T.B., 2004.    Fifth National Animal Science Convention. 99-103

AQFBr  -  14

Mahseer (Tor puttitora Hamilton) breeding was successful in Pokhara Valley showing the possibility of mass seed production in future for commercial production.

Reference:        Shrestha, B.C.1989. The Second Asian Fisheries Forum. The Asian Fisheries Society Manila, Philippines. 573-575

AQFBr  -  15

Mahseer (T. putitora) of 3-5 years old reared in earthen pond spawned without hormonal use and males mature >2+ years old. Brood fed 30-40% CP supplementary feed. Females released 550 to 19 795 ova at single response but breeders should be examined more frequently to avoid over maturation. The study suggests that mass scale breeding of golden mahseer is possible by maintaining a reasonable number of brood stock for aquaculture development and restocking purposes.

Reference:        Gurung, T.B. 2000.  Cold-water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries, FAO Fisheries Technical paper 431. 147-159

AQFBr  - 16

Wild breeders of golden mahseer (Tor putitora) domesticated feeding 2% of the body weight since 1989 in earthen pond at the Fisheries Research Centre, Trishul. Fish responded to hand stripping without any hormonal injection. Hatchery operation became easier with their increasing age of domestication. Fecundity was 3 048 eggs per kg body weight. The diameter of eggs varied from 2.65 to 2.85 mm and the eggs hatched 3-5 days after being incubated at 19 to 26°C. At hatching the total length and weight of alevins averaged 9.9 mm and 9.6 mg respectively. Fertility rate was >90%$, and hatchability was 75 to 77%. Alevins became free swimming after 6-7 days hatching. The study shows golden mahseer can be restored the endangered species by hatchery operation.

Reference:        Joshi, P.L. 2000. Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries, FAO Fisheries Technical paper 431. 73-178

AQFBr  - 17

Rreproductive biology of katle, Neolissocheilus hexagonolepis (McClelland), was carried out in the Tadi River and man made Indrasarobar reservoir, Nepal. Gonads started to develop in March and the reproductive phase lasted from April to October, which is consistent with the reproductive cycle of the other cyprinids. Katle from the river were less fecund than the reservoir katle at smaller size, however, absolute fecundity seemed to increase with size more rapidly in the river fish, and they were more fecund than the reservoir fish at the higher total length. The average fecundity in the reservoir was 19.13 ±1.56 eggs g-1 compared to 22. 57±1.41 eggs g-1 in the riverine population and showed multiple spawning characteristic. katle was very selective in finding a suitable place to spawn.

Reference:        Swar, D.W.2000.  Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries, FAO Fisheries Technical paper 431.301-309.

Fish  : Nutrition

AQFNUT -  1

Growth of planktivorous fish bighead and silver carps was positively correlated with water temperature with slight loss in weight at below 160C in Phewa, Begnas and Rupa lakes showing better growth in Phewa than Begnas and Rupa, where fish fed mostly indigestible phytoplankton Microcystis aeruginosa in Lake Begnas and Tabellaria fenestra and Microcystis aeruginosa in Lake Rupa and lead to poor fish growth. Maximum growth of silver carp is 5.8 g/day and bighead carp 4.7 g/day in Lake Phewa.

Reference:        Rai, A.K., 2000. The Japanese Society of Limnology 1:81-89

AQFNUT -  2

The net weight gain (83.8 mg) of fish was the best among the diets when fed with live zooplankton during 30 days of culture. The growth of fry showed better weight gain (45.5 mg) when fed with low level of fishmeal (15-20%). The recovery rate was also showed higher (90-92%) when fed both with live zooplankton and soybean meal.

Reference:        Bista, J.D., 1996. Proceedings of The  First National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal., NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu, Nepal :    38-43

AQFNUT - 3

The inclusion of fermented soybean in formulated diets at 30-40% levels resulted in better growth. Fry growth was accelerated with soybean fermented in fungal media for longer duration (72-96 h), whereas in the case of bacterial fermentation the best period observed was 24 h.

Reference:        Bista, J.D. 1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal.29-33.

AQFNUT - 4

The nutritive value of soybean could be improved by fermentation. Fermented soybean was nutritionally improved and thus is suitable for use in fish diet, especially for young fish larvae, since the latter have not yet fully developed enzyme system to digest crude soybean.

Reference:        Manandhar, S.P.,1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal.34-37

AQFNUT - 5

The brown variety of fermented soybean is richer in protein content and gives several folds increase in total free amino acid content than the white variety after fermentation. Besides, there is increase in free reducing sugar and decreased fibre content that makes the fermented product valuable to be used in replacement of fishmeal.

Reference:        Manandhar, S.P., 1998, Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal.38-41

AQFNUT - 6

During fermentation of soybean, increase in protein, fat and amino acids and decreased in fibre content were observed which makes the soybean nutritionally improved and makes applicable for use in fish diet.

Reference:        Manandhar, S.P.  1998, Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal.42-45

AQFNUT - 7

Fermented soybean can be used as substituent of fishmeal and also can improve growth and survivability of experimental hatchling.

Reference:        Manandhar, S.P. 1998, Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal46-48

AQFNUT - 8

Micro bound diet with fishmeal (Av. wt. gain 8.0 mg) close to the Japanese commercial diet and dry zooplankton basis micro bound diet gave a poor result.

Reference:        Bista, J.D. 1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal.49-54

AQFNUT - 9

Grass carp with an average weight of 230 g and over could utilize both aquatic and terrestrial macrophytes and convert it into increase in their body weight. The growth rate of grass carp fed with terrestrial grass was potentially higher than the fish fed with aquatic grass.

Reference:        Shrestha, R.K. 1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal.55-58

AQFNUT - 10

Soybean oil can supply nutrition in place of decreased raw materials, especially dry shrimp, for Rainbow trout feed. Increasing the amount of soybean oil in trout feed, it will be possible to decrease the composition of dry shrimp in Rainbow trout feed.

Reference:        Yamada, T. 1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal.59-61

AQFNUT - 11

There was no significant difference in body weight and total length gain among the experimental diet. It might be possible to decrease the present amount of dry shrimp in Rainbow trout feed for table fish production.

Reference:        Yamada, T., 1998.  Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal.62-63

AQFNUT - 12 

Weight gains were higher for fish fed with Japanese initial feed and raw buff-liver than fish fed with boiled buff-liver.

Reference:        Igarashi, M., 1998.  Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal.64-65

AQFNUT - 13

The fish fed with dry starter feed gave the best result (0.096 g/day) followed by the fish fed with buffalo liver (0.066 g/day) and egg custard (0.06 g/day).

Reference:        Predhan, N., 1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal: 66-67.

AQFNUT - 14 

The mean values were 4.6 and 1.8% in GSI of sahar, 7.1 and 4.1% in total lipid and 72.2 and 75.9% in moisture of sahar muscle, respectively, for spawning and non-spawning period. Total lipid in muscle significantly decreased during maturation period. Increase in GSI of sahar was associated with an increase in moisture and decrease in lipid content of sahar muscle. An increase in moisture tended to decrease in lipid content of sahar muscle irrespective of season.

Reference:        Bista, J.D. 1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal.68-70

AQFNUT - 15

The fish fed with dry starter feed gave the best result (0.096 g/day) followed by the fish fed with buffalo liver (0.066 g/day) and then the boiled egg yolk (0.06 g/day).

Reference:        Pradhan, N. 1999. Third Livestock and Fisheries Research

AQFNUT -  16

Total weight at the end of the experiment was observed to be higher in methionine-supplemented diet (94.0 g).

Reference:        Bista, J.D. 1999. Proceedings of The  Third National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.   42-45

AQFNUT - 17

Rainbow trout fed upon the diets containing more than 50% shrimp powder resulted in highest specific growth rate (2.0% per day), feed efficiency more than 57% and survival rate more than 98%.

Reference:        Ray, N.k.1999. Proceedings of The  Third National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.47-52

AQFNUT - 18

Soybean was the most digestible (84%) with an apparent protein digestibility (APD) value. Rice barn results in the highest APD value (71%) and followed by wheat barn (62.6%) among the test ingredients but low protein.

Reference:        Bista, J.D.,2000.  Proceedings of The  Fourth National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC. 30-38

AQFNUT - 19

The fry of common, grass, silver and bighead carp were stocked in four respective pond at a density of 80 tail/m2 feeding with 33.5% CP crumble feed for 45 days. The net production of 5.3, 3.6, 2.8 and 1.9 g/tail was obtained, respectively, for common, grass, silver and bighead carp. The fry of bighead carp showed higher relative growth of 18.1%/day. The fry of all species exceeded 87% survival rate at harvest. 

Reference:        Wagle, S.K.199 .Proceedings of the  Secondn National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal. NARC.NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu, Nepal: 161-170

AQFNUT - 20

One of the major impediments in development of mahseer production (Tor putitora) is an inadequate knowledge on dietary formulation of their feed. Nutrition, feed and feeding of mahseer in different life stages of golden mahseer are very important. For hatchlings and fry stage the most effective food is natural zooplankton. For fish growers or the adults, the effective diets were feed dominated with animal protein than plant origin that means their preference for animal food. Mahseer growth rate is slower than common carp (Cyprinus carpio), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala.

Reference:        Bista, J.D., 2000.  Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries, FAO Fisheries Technical paper 431. 107-117.

AQFNUT – 21 

Mahseer growth is higher compared to Katle and Asla and followed by Katle showing less gowth of Asla.

Reference:        Rai, A.k., A.K.rana and K.R.Bastola. 1997. Agr. Res. Jr. 1:57-61.

AQFNUT – 22 

Mahseer fry can be reared in captivity and grow well by developing feed from the local ingredients.

Reference:          Rai, A.K. and J.D.Bista 1994. Proceeding  of the Fifth Asian Fish Nutrition Workshop (Edited by S.S. De Silva).125-127

Fish: Culture and Production

A preliminary study of growth band survival of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in Chitwan, Nepal

AQFCP - 1

Study was carried out in farmer's field and found the first stage post larvae 6% survived for 19 days in happa compared to in open cement tank. Grew from 1-17 g in 271 days with survival rate 35% and grew from 1-43 g in 234 days with survival rate 20-28 days. Low survival rate was due to low temp below 150C. Fully matured during March. Growth was higher in earthen pond than in cemented tank. Nursing technique need to improve to increase survival rate. Growth shows the possibility to culture in subtropical condition but low temperature hinders its growth. Culture cycle need to standardize to avoid winter cold temperature.

Reference:        Shrestha, M.K., 2004. 25:75-78, J. Inst. Agric.  Anim. Sc, Rampur

AQFCP - 2

Appropriate stocking density of planktivorous fish 10-12 /m3 stocking density in floating cage has been evaluated

Reference:        Rai, A.K., 1992. J. Nat. Hist. Mus. 13 (1-4):3-8.1-4

AQFCP - 3

Asla a cold water indigenous the phytophagus a highly domesticated fish and rainbow trout an exotic carnivorous exotic fish reviewed. Asla need 20=250C for growth and 15-200C for spawning and reached about 100 g within in three years. Rainbow trout needs below 200C but needs 9-140C for spawning and reached 200-300 g within 14-15 months of cultured period. Both fish culture can support to enhance economic status of the mid-hill people and support for tourist industry.

Reference:        Rai, A.K.2002. Proceedings of International Seminar on Mountains-Kathmandu, RONAST. 441-446

AQFCP - 4

Productivity of caged fish silver carp and bighead carp in lakes of Pokhara valley and  man made reservoir assessed. 1.3-5.5 kg/m3 in Phewa, 1.8-4.7 kg/m3 in Begnas , 2.0-7.4 kg/m3 in Rupa and 3.9-5.3 kg/m3 in Indrasarobar Reservoir.

Reference:        Rai, A.K.,2002. Proceedings of International Seminar on Mountains-Kathmandu, RONAST. 412-418

AQFCP - 5

Growth performance of plantivorous fish has been assessed according to fertility of water bodies in the earthen ponds. Higher the pond water fertility higher the growth of hybrid fish and higher the productivity achieved.

Reference:        Rai, A.K., 2002. 1(4):29-50, Jr. of Applied Aquaculture

AQFCP - 6

Bighead Carp X Silver Carp Hybrids in Ponds of Varying Trophic Status grow better in higher plankton available particularly zooplankton enhance the growth means prefer zooplankton than phytoplankton.

Reference:        Joshi, P.L., 1991. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 1(1):45-55.

AQFCP - 7

Lake Phewa had positive response on fingerling production in wet season (July-October) with highest weight gain in silver carp (55.9 g) and bighead carp (19.1 g), followed by intermediate in lake Rupa and poorest in lake Begnas. The treatments' mean yield from density trial was 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kg/m3 in lake Phewa, respectively for density 100,300 and 500 tails/ m3.

Reference:        Wagle, S.K1996. Proceedings of the  First National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.  NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu, Nepal : 268-291

AQFCP - 8

Rainbow trout could be reared in the pond with more than 15 kg/m2stocking density (about 70 g individual size) with the yield of 31.9 kg/ m2 during 90 days of culture period.

Reference:        Nepal, A.P. 1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal.ARS (FISH ) Pokhara / NARC/ JICA :  7-9.

AQFCP - 9

Lake Phewa had positive response on fingerling production in wet season (July-October) with the highest weight gain of 55.9 g in silver carp and 19.1 g in bighead carp. Lake Begnas was the poorest among three lakes while Lake Rupa stand in intermediate in accelerating the growth of silver and bighead carp fry.

Reference:        Wagle,S.K., 1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal  ARS (FISH ) Pokhara / NARC/ JICA :  10-16.

AQFCP - 10

The mean absolute daily weight gain of 1.88 g and 1.64 g/day were obtained for FRC and HCF formulations, respectively. Gross and net yields were affected by the treatments with food type. The treatments mean yield was 2.4 and 3.45 kg/m3, respectively, for fish fed with FRC and HCF. The mean daily weight gain was 1.32 and 1.28 g/day, respectively, for common carp raised in unsealed and sealed cage.

Reference:        Sharma, D.P.1998.  Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal. ARS (FISH ) Pokhara / NARC/ JICA :  17-19.

AQFCP - 11

he growth rate of sahar was found very low (5.06 mg/day) compared to Asala and Katle on fed with 48% protein content Ayu fish feed. Based on feeding behavior, Asala had relatively good capture efficiency and it was more domesticated than Katle and Sahar.

Reference:        Bashnyat, S.P. 1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal: ARS (FISH ) Pokhara / NARC/ JICA : 21-23.

AQFCP - 12

Rainbow trout was raised in 3 different culture systems for 90 days by feeding pellet feed containing 35% crude protein at the rate of 2-4% of body weight. Growth rate was highest (1.5 g/day) in raceway ponds followed by net cages (0.7 g/day) and earthen pond(0.69 g/day).

Reference:        Joshi, P.L.1999.Proceedings of the  Third National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.90-93.

AQFCP - 13

The highest mean absolute daily weight gain (2.36g/day) was of large size fish stocked (122.6 g) and the small size fish stocked (27.8 g) gain weight at the rate of 1.63 g/day. the mean yields were 2.1 and 4.0 kg/m3, respectively, for small and large size fish stocked.

Reference:        Wagle, A.K. Proceedings of the  Fourth National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nnepal.NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu, Nepal:15-23.

AQFCP - 14

The productivity obtained highest 4.2 Mt/ha when stocked 5000 fingerlings/ha using exotic carp as major species (80%) followed by 3.5 Mt/ha when stocked 7000 fingerlings/ha also using exotic carp as major species. The lowest productivity was 2.0 Mt/ha when stocked 5000 fingerlings/ha using indigenous carp as major species(80%).

Reference:        Thapa, A.P. 2000.Proceedings of the  Fourth National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal. C/NASRI, Kathmandu: 39-44.

AQFCP - 15

Chicken manured ponds exhibited the highest production (3.78 mt/ha) and followed by pig manured ponds (2.49 mt/ha), cattle manured ponds (2.14 mt/ha) and control pond (1.2 mt/ha).

Reference:        Sah, P.K., 2002. Proceedings of the  Fifth  National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/ NASRI : 65-68.

AQFCP - 16

The stocking density of 3-5 days old silver carp, bighead carp and rohu hatchlings was 2-3 millions/ha. The mean recovery rate of fries obtained 42.3% and 49.9% fed with 20% and 25% protein content diets, respectively. The survival rate was higher in fish fed fed with 25% protein content diets than 20% protein content diets.

Reference:        Shrivastab, K.K. 2002.Proceedings of the Fifth National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/NASRI : 76-78.

AQFCP - 17

The two treatments of stocking size of sahar viz. three months old (4 g) and one year old (100 g) were established at a density of 4000 individuals/ha by feeding on 35% protein feed at an average rate of 7.3% of total live weight. Total weight gain of 256±8.48 g for one year old sahar was significantly (P<0.01) higher than the total weight gain of 139.0±7.07 g for three months old sahar. One year old sahar grew at a rate of 0.7 g/fish/day while the growth rate of three months old sahar was 0.38 g/fish/day.

Reference:        Bista, J.D., 2004. Proceedings of The  Sixth National  Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Researchin Nepal.

AQFCP - 18

The model allows water quality to sustain fish production in natural balance system to produce marketable size tilapia (250-300 g) and this system allows involving small-scale farmer to produce better fish yield for their nutrition and to supplement in livelihood.

Reference:        Rai, A.K. 2004. Proceedings of the  Fifth National Animal Science Convention.( NASA ).

Kathmandu : 55-62.

AQFCP - 19

The cost analysis of rainbow trout has been done at the Fisheries Research Station, Trishuli on the basis of feed efficiency and found FCR 2:1. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in feed efficiency, FCR, survival rate and specific growth rate among and within experimental treatments where 70 g fish were grown to 161 g. Trout can produce 100-200 t/ha in a 14-15 month period but depending on water supply and feed quality. Fish production costs about NRs 255 to produce one kilogram of trout and gives 19.5% rate of return on initial cost showing rainbow trout would be a profitable if produced commercially.

Reference:        Nepal, A.P. 2000.  Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries, FAO Fisheries Technical paper 431. 179-191

AQFCP – 20 

Daily fish catch was surveyed in territory of Rijalghat a part of Trisuli river and found 61 kg/ha/yr with maximum catch 93 kg/ha/yr. The per catch unit effort ranged from 463-900 g/person/yr with an average 740 g/person/yr.

Reference:        joshi, P.L. 2004. Proceedings of the  Fifth National Animal Science Convention, NASA : 81-84

AQFCP – 21

Cage fish culture increased from 1800 m3 to 15,300 m3 during last 20 years in lake Phewa, pen fish culture increased from 0.2 ha to 5.5 ha within 7 years period. In lake Begnas Cage fish culture not productive. Lake Rupa is most productive for fish growth for last about 14 years but now become very unproductive due to aquatic weeds made available. Kulekhani reservoir is productive and successful manmade reservoir for cage fish culture.

Reference:        Shrestha, M.K. 2004. Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries, FAO Fisheries Technical paper 431: 289-295

Fish   : Rice Fish Integration.

AQRF - 1

Higher fish production (756 kg/ha) was obtained from the higher stocking density of fish (9000 fish/ha) with smaller size of fish (118 g/fish) harvested during 93 days from June to September. Lower fish production (329 kg/ha) was obtained from the lower stocking density of fish (4000 fish/ha) with larger size of fish (163 g/fish) during 50 days from April to June. The survival rate remained from 69-92%. The total income increased by 26% from rice-fish culture than without fish culture in the rice field and increased by 6% only in rice production.

Reference:        Rai, A.K.. 1996. Proceedings of the  First National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research  in Nepal.NARC/NASRi, Kathmandu, Nepal: 292-297.

AQRF - 2

Integration of rice-fish technology verified in farmer's field in Syanja and Tanahu districts and productivity found about 5.13 mt/ha stocking common carp fingerlings 6000 fish/ha. Rice yield also increased by 12% when fish culture with rice than only rice cultivation

Reference:        Gurung, T.B. 2002.  Proceedings of International Seminar on Mountains-Kathmandu, RONAST. 425-440

AQRF -  3

Common carp fingerlings (30-60 g) were cultured at three stocking densities (6,000, 8,000 and 10,000/ha) for 90 days in rice field at Tarahara at 13.3-31.4°C. The highest fish production was 782 kg/ha at 8,000/ha stocking density with the highest rice production (2.29 m.ton/ha), which was increased by 8% compared to rice production from without fish culture.

Reference:        Thapa, A.B., 1997. Proceedings of the  Second National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/NASRI :  171-174

AQRF - 4

The trench design had positive response on fish production in relation to refuge area occupied by trench types.H-trench had significantly high yield of Tilapia compared to other trench type. Production of common carp found was 290.9, 304.7, 361.9 and 377.9 kg/ha at stocking density of 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 /ha, respectively. Tilapia exhibited the significant increase in fish yield with the higher stocking density. Continuous flow irrigation had significantly suppressed the rice yield but the production of fish was higher compared to stagnant irrigation at all stocking densities with common carp.

Reference:        Wagle, S.K., 1998. Present Status of Fisheries Research , Development and Education in Nepal. ARS (FISH ) Pokhara / NARC/ JICA.

AQPF - 5

Rice-fish integration could optimize additional income to farmers through fish production, which ranged from 180-395 kg/ha depending upon stocking density and size of fingerlings. In treatments fish yield increased with stocking density. Highest fish yield occurred in treatment with combination of large size (LS: 20g) and highest stocking (HS: 6000 Nos.) density.

Reference:        Gurung, T.B. 2002. Proceedings of the 5th National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries  Research in Nepal . NARC / NASRI

AQRF - 6

The mean fish yield was 364±77.2 kg/ha and 294±60.4 kg/ha, respectively, for organic and inorganic fertilizer treatments. Low water level, declining water pH and temperature at later stage of rice growing period did affect (P<0.05) the growth and survivability of fish in rice field. Rice yield increased by 11.8% in rice-fish fields over rice monoculture. Presence of fish through its role on biopurturbation and grazing on photosynthetic aquatic organisms could have played greater role to influence rice yield.

Reference:        Wagle, S.K.2004. Proceedings of the  Sixth National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal. NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu, Nepal.

AQRF - 7

Presence of fish through its role on biopurturbation and grazing on photosynthetic aquatic organisms could have played greater role to influence rice yield.

Reference:        Wagle, S.K. 2004. Fifth National Animal Science Convention ( NASA ).Kathmandu 63-73

AQRF - 8

Rice-fish farming technology can be applied in terai and mid-hill region to increase rice production and as well as extra fish production but need to take care for site selection where water source will not be problem and also should be very much careful from predators and poaching.

Reference:        Wagle, S.K. 1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal. ARS (FISH ) Pokhara / NARC/ JICA  : 103-108

Fish : Disease & Others

AQFDO - 1

Five different types of fish parasites including Trichodina sp., Costia sp., Argulus sp., Dactylogyrus sp. and Taenia solium were observed in carps. Outbreak of bacterial disease (Tail rot and Fin rot disease) were observed in Rainbow trout causing about 10% fish loss at different stages from yearling to table fish (100-300 g).

Reference:        Rayamajhi, A. 1999. Proceedings of the  Third National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/NASRI. Kathmandu, Nepal:  94-98

AQFDO - 2

General fish diseases reviewed and acknowledged to be aware to keep good health of fish and use the medicine according to the disease available for treatment.

Reference:        Rayamjhi, A. 1996. Review on fish health management in Nepal

AQFDO - 3

The total number of bacteria found in Grass carp were higher than Silver carp, but gram positive bacteria were found in both fish species. The percentage of macromolecules hydrolyzing bacteria isolates were found different in different fish pond water. Protein hydrolyzing bacteria were found higher in Grass carp than in Silver carp but starch and tween 20 hydrolyzing bacteria were found lower in Grass carp than in Silver carp. The microflora of fish intestine was found to be affected by the environment where the fish were bred.

Reference:        Bajracharya, K. 1997. Proceedings of the  Second National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC/NASRI, Kathmandu, Nepal: 117-123

AQFDO ­ 4

Physico-chemical parameters were slightly change in different fish ponds water. The average of values of water temperature, pH, total alkalinity, hardness, chloride, BOD, COD, orthophosphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia in three seasons were 17.25°C, 7.91, 124-140 mg/l, 128.53 mg/l, 10.05 mg/l, 8.98 mg/l, 2.94 mg/l, 4.45 mg/l, 0.004 mg/l, 0.009 mg/l and 0.022 mg/l, respectively. Coliform showed direct correlation with temperature, BOD, COD, orthophosphate and nitrogenous compound but showed inverse correlation with pH value and dissolved oxygen. Coliforms were found maximum (1100 coliform/100 ml) during summer and minimum (11 coliform/100 ml) during winter.The average total number of aerobic bacteria were found to be 5.2x102-4.4x104 CFU/ml. The predomonant aerobic bacterial flora were Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Vibrio and Salmonella.

Reference:        Shrestha, P.M. 1997. Proceedings of the  Second National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.NARC / NASRI, Kathmandu, Nepal: 124-134.

AQFDO -  5

One week old ducklings were raised for 17 week receiving 23 and 18% protein content diet. The highest growth rate (39.52 g/day) was obtained during 4th week with an average feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 1.5. The maximum average weight of duck was 2.02 kg during 12th week. The survival rate was about 92%. The total disposable income from the duck production operation was Rs 5880.5, 6666.4 and 1239.6 for a period of 8, 12 and 17 weeks, respectively. Of the total cost 55.3, 59.2 and 63.1% was for feed respectively, for ducks raised for 8, 12 and 17 weeks.

Reference:        Bista, J.D.1999. Proceedings of the  Third National Workshop on  Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.  NARC/ NASRI.78-84.

AQFDO - 6

Annual water temperature of lakes Phewa, Begnas, and Rupa in Pokhara valley ranged from 12-290C Lakes Phewa and Begnas were monmictic and anoxic in hypolimnion from April to September. DO depleted in April/Mayin lake Rupa. PC:PP ration higher but PC:PN and PN:PP ratios close to Redfield ratio (106C:16N:1P) in lakes Phewa and Begnas denoting P was limited. Primary production showed lakes productive and tend to heterotrophic in future. Ceratium hirundinella and peridinium spp. in lake phewa, Microcystis aeruginosa and Aulacoseira granulata in lake Begnas and Tubellaria fenetra in lake Rupa were dominated species.

Reference:        Rai, A.K 2000.japanese Journal of  Limnology:  1:33-46.

AQFDO - 7

Preliminary study on the effectiveness of Some Local Plants carried out and found that pirre (Polygonum hydropiper) ) was the most effective at 20 ppm followed by Bogate (Maesa macrophylla and kukur tarul (Dioscorea deltoidea), respectively. It shows that pirre can be used by the local farmers as the effective fish poison. 

Reference:        Karki, K.B. and A.K.Rai. 1982.  Proceeding  of  First National Science  and Technology Cong. Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. 2:270-274.

AQFDO - 8 

Tamur, Melanchi, Bheri, Babai, Sunkoshi and Trisuli surveyed about fish contribution and involvement group and assessed about 1550 fishermen families of local ethnic groups involved in fishing for livelihood. Fish population is shown decreasing trend due to over fishing and development work. So natural fish stock and conservation highly recommended.  

Reference:        Gubaju, S.R.,  D.B.Swar and S.N.Yadav. 2002. Proceedings of International Seminar on Mountains-Kathmandu, RONAST. 419-424

AQFDO – 9 

The rivers support a large variety of aquatic flora, insects and 185 fish species. Rivers of Nepal are renowned for hydropower potential and potential is estimated to be 83 200 MW, with 42 133 MW as economically feasible. Runoff river type and high dam reservoir have been adopted for hydropower development in Nepal. In the reservoir, game fish may decline and Neolissocheilus hexagonolepis resident including catfish. Long distant migrants such as Tor  sp, Bagarius, Pseudeutropius, Clupisoma etc will be physical barrier to migrate. Minimum discharges from 0.5 to 15 m3/s to maintain an aquatic environment suitable for riverine fish.

Reference:        Gubaju, S.R., 2002.. Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries, FAO Fisheries Technical paper 431: 129-145

AQFDO – 10

Koshi River has a vast catchment area, identified 96 fish species of which 11 species are very common. Fishermen use more than 15 types of fishing gear to catch the fish and fish catch is about 1.14 kg/ha/day. Ethnic groups are the fishermen belong to Godhi, Mallah, Mukhiya, Bahardhar. Total population is estimated to be 2 937 in 484 households of which 445 households are solely dependent on the fishing while the rest are traditional occupation to agriculture, rickshaw pulling, carpenters and field labourers. Mostly muslims are found to be involved in fishing. The socio-economic status of the fishermen communities is low. 46% families found landless and 54% owned less than 0.2 ha of land. 93% respondents earned less than NRs. 5 000 per annum and 7% NRs. 5 000 - 10 000. Improvement of the social status of the fishermen communities is urgently needed by conservation and restocking fish population.

Reference:        Yadav, S. 2002.Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries, FAO Fisheries Technical paper 431: 17-325

AQFDO  - 11

Nepal of which 13 species classified as cold-water fish. 47 fishermen families involved fishing but reported decreasing trend of fish catching. The catch per person per gear per day was 0.9 kg to 1.3 kg and due to low catches fishermen seeking alternative work though the demand for fish remains high. It is recommended to set up a fish farm for producing Tor putitora (mahseer/sahar) and Neolissocheilus hexagonolepis (katle), protect the environment, minimise pollution, establish fish sanctuaries, ban destructive fishing methods and enforce fishery regulations.

Reference:        Dhital, R.R. and D.K.jha. 2002  . Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries, FAO Fisheries Technical paper 431: 119-128

AQFDO – 12

Eighteen species of zooplankton were recorded in Phewa, Begnas and Rupa lakes in Pokhara valley from July 1996 to June 1997. Zooplankton density was 69x103, 26x103, 56x103/m3 in lakes Phewa, Begnas and Rupa, respectively. Copepoda was highest (52.4%) followed by rotifera (37.8%) and Cladocera (9.8%), respectively. The relative abundance of cladocera was higher in Lake Begnas than in lakes Phewa and Rupa.

Reference:        Dhakal. R.P., S.K.Wagle and a.K.Rai 1998. Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal: ARS (FISH ) Pokhara / NARC/ JICA:  82-85

AQFDO – 13

Eighteen species of zooplankton were recorded in Phewa, Begnas and Rupa lakes in Pokhara valley from July 1996 to June 1997. Zooplankton density was 69x103, 26x103, 56x103/m3 in lakes Phewa, Begnas and Rupa, respectively. Copepoda was highest (52.4%) followed by rotifera (37.8%) and Cladocera (9.8%), respectively. The relative abundance of cladocera was higher in Lake Begnas than in lakes Phewa and Rupa.

Reference:        Mulmi, R.M and A.K.Rai 1998. , Present status of fisheries research, development and education in Nepal: ARS (FISH ) Pokhara / NARC / JICA:  86-88

AQFDO – 14

Seasonal variation in fish biodiversity and water quality studied for three seasons wet, dry and summer for pre-impoundment condition in Kaligandaki river. 24 fish identified of which Barilius bendelisis and B. vagra including Noemacheilus shebbearei and N. rupicola were the common species available there. Water quality ranged 15.5-23.10C water temp, 8.9-13.1 DO, 7.4-8.1 pH, etc

Reference:        Wagle, S.K. 2000. Proceedings of the Fourth Livestock and Fisheries Research workshop in Nepal: 24-29

AQFDO – 15

Snow trout is a short migratory and algae feeder fish called Asla distributed in Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions in Asia. Altogether 28 species are reported and Schizothoraichthys progastus distributed from 300-1820 m and Schizothorax plagiostomus distributed from 345-3,323 m. Asla is phytophagous. Asla spawn artificially in September/October and March/April. It breeds artificially in Trisuli . Fish fed 35% protein content diet, spawn about 12000 eggs/kg. Hatching takes place about 11 days at water temp 15-200C. Survival rate higher >90%. Culture technology need to develop for culture. 

Reference:        Rai, A.K. 2000. Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries, FAO Fisheries Technical paper 431: 213-220

AQFDO – 16

Mahseer (Tor tor and Tor putitora) is potential for ranching in rivers and channels. It can rehabilitate in rivers and enhance to sustain fishing level. Mahseer spawn artificially and release fry and fingerling but protection for growing fish is necessary.

Reference:        Shrestha, T.K. 2000.    Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries, FAO Fisheries Technical paper 431: 297 - 300

AQFDO – 17

Capture fishery in Sunkoshi river was surveyed from 1998-2001 from Tato pani to Dollalghat Schizothorax was common. Fishing gear was common and electtrofishing also practiced. 45 full time, 211 temporary and >500 occasional fishermen available. About 22 mt fish harvest annually from about 800 ha. Socio economics of the fishermen is weak. Fish is declining.

Reference:        Ranjit, R..  2000. Cold water fisheries in the trans-Himalayan countries, FAO Fisheries Technical paper 431: 247- 256